***  O'ZBEK  TILI   *   UZBEK  LANGUAGE  ***






This is the copy of my Telegram-channel for learning the Uzbek language.


Uzbek, like other Turkic languages, is interesting for its logic, consistency. This is its difference from modern Germanic languages, those formed by multiple mixing of Slavic and Germanic languages and multiple compromises between them. The Turkic languages have not changed much over the centuries, keeping the pure logic of constructing words and sentences...


We will use the materials of the telegram-channel Uzbek language translated from Russian.




The Uzbek language has 2 alphabets. One is based on the Latin alphabet, the other is based on the Cyrillic alphabet. The Latin based alphabet consists of 26 letters, three digraphs sh, ch and ng, and an apostrophe. The Cyrillic based alphabet consists of 35 letters.





Қ қ Ғ ғ Ҳ ҳ




B b D d F f G g H h I i

J j K k L l m N n P p Q q

R r S s t U u V v X x Y y Z z

Oʻ oʻ Gʻ gʻ Sh sh Ch ch Ng ng



Pronunciation of letters:


" A " as in the word "cat"

" B " as in the word "bat"

" D " as in the word "den"

" E " as in the word "bet"

" F " as in the word "fish"

" G " as in the word "go"

" H " as in the word "house"

" I " as in the word "me"

" J " as in the word "joke" or as in "vision"

" K " as in the word "cold"

" L " as in the word "list"

" M " as in the word "man"

" N " as in the word "next"

" O " as in the word "hot" or as in "call"

" P " as in the word "pin"

" Q " like a " K ", but further back in the throat

" R " as in the word "rat" (trilled, like in Russian)

" S " as in the word "sick"

" T " as in the word "toe"

" U " as in the word "put" or as in "choose"

" V " as in the word "van"

" X " - "ch" as in German "Bach" or Scottish "loch"

" Y " as in the word "yes"

" Z " as in the word "zebra"

" O' " as in the word "row", "fur"

" G' " like a French or German "r"

" Sh " as in the word "shoe"

" Ch " as in the word "chew"

" Ng " as in the word "king"


Apostrophe is used either

1) to mark the phonetic glottal stop when put immediately before a vowel or

2) to mark a long vowel when placed immediately after a vowel.






Examples with " a ":


ana - that, there (points to something distant)

mana - this, here (points to something close)


aka - older brother

uka - younger brother

aka-uka - brothers

ana aka - that is the older brother

mana uka - this is the younger brother

mana aka-uka - these are brothers



Almost always, the stress in Uzbek words is put on the last syllable!




Examples with " i ":


ip - thread

igna (nina) - needle

iz - track(s)

imzo - signature



Misollar - Examples:


Mana ip - This is a thread

Ana ip - That is a thread

Mana nina (igna) - This is a needle

Mana iz -  This is a track (These are tracks)

Mana imzo - This is signature




Examples with " o ":


non - bread

bola - child

ol - take

olma apple



Misollar - Examples:


Mana non - This is a bread

Mana bola - This is a child

Karim, nonni ol - Karim, take a bread

Lola, olmani ol - Lola, take an apple



In Uzbek, the predicate is at the end of a sentence!





Examples with " u ":


bu - this, "this is"


uzum - vine, grapes

uchun - for

uy - home

uzun - long



Misollar - Examples:


Bu olma - This is an apple

Sardor, bu olmani ol - Sardor, take this apple

Mana uy - This is a home

Mana uzum - This is a vine

Umida, uzumdan ol - Umida, take these grapes

Mana Karim uchun uy - This house is for Karim

Bu uzum shirin - These grapes are sweet

Aziz, uzumdan ol - Aziz, take these grapes

Sevara uchun uzum ol - Take these grapes for Sevara


Uzbek prepositions are always placed after the word to which they refer!




Examples with " e ":


etik - high boot

eshik - door

el - people

erkak - man

ertaga - tomorrow

echki - goat

kelmoq - to come


The affix "-moq" gives an indefinite verb form.



Misollar - Examples:


Bu echki - This is a goat

Mana eshik - Here is the door

Ana etik - There is a high boot

Karim, ertaga kel - Karim, come tomorrow

Aziz, etikni ol - Aziz, take the high boot

Tursun, eshikni och - Tursun, open the door

Lola, echkini olib ket - Lola, take the goat away





There are no prefixes in the Uzbek language. But there are many affixes that go in a certain order after the root of the word. The root of a word, as a rule, consists of 1-2 syllables; the main part of the word is often a set of affixes.


The affix "-ni" is used in the accusative case.





Examples with " o' ":


tort - four

bor - chalk

koz - eye

kocha - street

dost - friend

soz - word

oz - own, -self-




Misollar - Examples:


Mana bor - Here is the chalk

Tursun, borni ol - Tursun, take the chalk

Uzun kocha - Long street

Sozlarni oqing - Read the words

O'z oilam - My own family

Men buni o'zim qilaman - I do it myself






Examples with " q ":


qor - snow

quyosh - sun

quloq - ear, ears

qogoz - paper

ortoq - comrade

qishloq - village




Misollar - Examples:


Qor yogdi - It was snowing

Quyosh nurlari - Sun rays

Quloq solmoq - listen

Yozuv qogozi - Writing paper

Qoshni qishloq - Neighboring village





Examples with " g' ":


goz - goose

bog - garden

tog - mountain

galaba - victory

gayrat - energy, ardour




Misollar - Examples:


Goz bolasi - Gosling

Goz goshti - Goose meat

Mevazor bog - Orchard

Tog etagi - Foot of the mountain

Tog choqqisi - Peak

Galaba qozonmoq - To win a victory

Gayrat qilmoq - To act energetically





Examples with " h ":


ham - and, both

hayot - life

hozir - now

hazil - joke

hikoya - story

hamma - all

hafta - week

harakat - movement, motion




Misollar - Examples:


Kocha harakati Street traffic

Men ham oqiyman, sen ham oqiysan And I will teach, and you will

Hayot kechirmoq To spend life, to live

Hazil qilmoq To joke   (qilmoq - to do)

Hikoyalar toplami Collection of stories

Hamma narsa All things

Otgan hafta Last week





Examples with " j ":


juda - very

juma - Friday

joja - chicken

jim - calm, quiet

janjal - scandal

janub - south






Examples with " ng ":



ong consciousness

tong dawn

bong scream

jang battle






Kishilik olmoshlari - Personal pronouns



Men I

Sen Thou

U He, She, It

Biz We

Siz You

Ular They





In Uzbek, as in other Turkic languages, there is no grammatical gender.




Soroq olmoshlari - Interrogative pronouns

The interrogative pronoun Kim? - Who? - is used only in relation to people, and in relation to everything else Nima? - What?

Misollar Examples:

Bu kim? Who is this?
Bu Rustam. This is Rustam.
U kim? Who is it?
U muhandis. He is an engineer.
Siz kimsiz? Who are you?
Men shifokorman. I am a doctor.
Bu nima? What is this?
Bu kitob. This is a book.
Mana bu nima? What is this?
Mana bu avtobus. This is a bus.




Interrogative sentences are constructed in three ways:

1. Using interrogative particles (mi, -chi, -a):

Bu yaxshi kitobmi? - It is a good book, isn't it(kitob - book)

Siz talabamisiz? - Are you a student?   (talaba - student;   -siz - 2nd person plural affix)

U-chi? What about him?

U shifokor-a? - He is a doctor, isn't he?

2. Using interrogative pronouns:

Ana bu nima? - What is there?

3. Using interrogative intonation:

Soat ikki bo'ldi? - It's two o'clock now (isn't it)?  
(soat = hour, ikki = two, bo'ldi = was   (bo'l = is, -di = past tense affix))


The word order in the interrogative sentence is usually the same as in the answer. That is, the interrogative pronoun is in the place of the word containing the answer.





Important affix "LAR:



"Lar is the main prefix for the plural:


bolalar children, sozlar words, toglar mountains etc.



In some cases, this affix can be used not only with nouns, but also with other parts of speech, for example, with verbs:


Qidirdilar, ammo topolmadilar - They searched, but could not find.



In addition, this affix is used to convey a respectful attitude:


otamlar - my dear father, onamlar - my dear mother;


Xush kelibsizlar! - Welcome dear guest!




Egalik qoshimchalari - Possessive affixes:



The Uzbek language has possessive affixes that are attached to names to indicate that a given object belongs to any person or object.


After the final vowel:


1st person, singular: m; plural: miz

2nd person, singular: ng; plural: ngiz

3rd person, singular: si; plural: si or lari


After the final consonant:


1st person, singular: im; plural: imiz

2nd person, singular: ing; plural: ingiz

3rd person, singular: i; plural: i or lari



This refers to the person and number inherited from the person or thing to which the object belongs.

In the third person, the number is not inherited. The affix "lari" = "lar"+"i", here "lar" gives us the plural of the subordinate object.




my house uyim; our house uyimiz;

my houses uylarim; our houses - uylarimiz;


your (thy) house uying; your house - uyingiz;

your (thy) houses uylaring; your houses - uylaringiz;


his house - uyi; their house uyi;

his houses - uylari; their houses uylari.




Examples with a final vowel:


otam my father

otang your (thy) father

otasi his (her) father

otamiz our father

otangiz your father

otasi their father




Examples with a final consonant:


maktabim my school

maktabing your (thy) school

maktabi his (her) school

maktabimiz our school

maktabingiz your school

maktabi their school




Examples sentences:


Kitobim qani? Where is my book?

Kitobingni ol Take your book.

Kitobini ber Give me his (her) book.

Kitobingni oqi Read your book.

Kitobimni oqi Read my book.

Kitobingni oqiyman I will read your book.

Kitobimiz kimda? Who has our book?

Kitobingiz stolda Your book is on the table.

Kitobingizni kim oqidi? Who has read your book?

Kitobingizni men oqidim I read your book.




Names of the days of the week:


Yakshanba - Sunday

Dushanba - Monday

Seshanba - Tuesday

Chorshanba - Wednesday

Payshanba - Thursday

Juma - Friday

Shanba Saturday




Examples of yes/no questions:


Aziz shanba kuni ishladimi? - Did Aziz work on Saturday?

Ha, Aziz shanba kuni ishladi. - Yes, Aziz worked on Saturday.

Yoq, Aziz shanba kuni ishlamadi. - No, Aziz did not work on Saturday.


Sen hafta kunlarini aytib bera olasanmi? - Can you name the days of the week?

Ha, aytib bera olaman, marhamat. - Yes, I can, please.


Siz shanba kuni ishlaysizmi? Do you work on Saturday?

Dushanba kuni majlis boladimi? Will there be a meeting on Monday?


Lola dushanba kuni ishga boradimi? (or "Lola dushanbada ishga boradimi?") - Will Lola go to work on Monday?

Ha, Lola dushanba kuni ishga boradi. - Yes, Lola will go to work on Monday.

Seshanba kuni-chi? - And on Tuesday?

Seshanba kuni ham boradi. (or "Seshanbada ham boradi") - Yes, and on Tuesday, too, will go.




Interrogative sentences can be formed using the following interrogative pronouns:


Kim?, Kimlar? Who? (We say "Kimlar" if we know that there are several persons)

Nima?, Nimalar? What? (We say "Nimalar" if we know there are multiple items)


Qanday? Which?, What kind of...?, How?

Qanday qilib? - How?, In what way?


Qaysi? What kind of...? - Which?

Qaysi biri? - Which one of...?


Qancha?, Necha? How much?, How many?

Nechta? How many (items)?

Nechanchi? Which (one) is on the bill?


Qachon? When?

Qachondan beri? Since when?


Qayerda? - Where?

Qayerga? - In which direction?

Qayerdan? - Where from?


Nega? - Why?

Nimaga? - Why? For what?




Examples of whquestions:


Bu qanday qalam? Bu qora qalam.

What kind of pencil is this? This is a black pencil.


Bu qaysi ko'cha? Bu yangi ko'cha.

Which street is this? This is a new street.


Siz qayerda o'qiysiz? Men universitetda o'qiyman.

Where do you study? I am studying at university.


U nimaga qiziqadi? U tarixga qiziqadi.

What is he interested in? He is interested in history.


Siz haftaning qaysi kuni dam olasiz?

Which day of the week do you rest?


Haftaning qaysi kunlari ishlaysiz?

What days of the week do you work?


Yakshanba kuni qayerga bormoqchisiz?

Where do you want to go on Sunday?




There are 2 features of the use of possessive affixes:



1. At the root of some words, a vowel in the second syllable disappears:


singil (sister) singlim, singlimiz, singling, singlingiz, singlisi (my sister, our sister, );


shahar (town) shahrim, ;


bo'yin (neck) bo'ynim, ;


qorin (belly) qornim, , qorni.


Voy qornim! = Woe is me!



2. At the root of two-syllable words ending in the consonants k or q,


- k changes to g: ko'ylak (shirt) ko'ylagi, chelak (bucket) chelagi, yurk (heart) yurgi,


- q changes to g': o'rtoq (comrade) o'rtog'i, qishloq (village) qishlog'i, botlq (little camel) botlgi.







son - numeral, number

yil year

oy - month

hafta week

kun - day

soat hour


Numerals are divided into cardinal (miqdor son) and ordinal (tartib son).

Cardinal numerals answer the questions "Qancha?", "Nechta?", "Necha?".

Ordinal numerals answer the question "nechanchi" (which) and are formed by adding suffixes to cardinal numerals:


-nchi (after final vowels);

-inchi (after final consonants).



1 bir

2 ikki

3 uch

4 tort

5 besh

6 olti

7 yetti

8 sakkiz

9 toqqiz

10 on

20 yigirma

30 ottiz

40 qirq

50 ellik

60 oltmish

70 yetmish

80 sakson

90 toqson

100 yuz

1000 ming






Ordinal numerals examples:



Uchinchi eshikdan kir! - Enter the third door!


Bu qirq oltinchi uy - This is the forty sixth house


Ertaga o'n birinchi dars bo'ladi Tomorrow will be the eleventh lesson


Birinchi yil o'tdi The first year has passed




The use of cardinal numerals in sentences often looks like Number + ta + Noun:



Bu ko'chada sakkizta uy bor - There are eight houses on this street

Yigirma ettita olma bor - There are twenty seven apples



Another way is to use numerative words


Here are the most used numerative words:


dona piece, item

nusxa example of a book or a document

bosh animal unit

tup plant unit

nafar person

juft couple

yosh - used to indicate age (yosh young)




yetti dona baliq seven fishes

tort tup daraxt four trees

on nafar oquvchi ten students


In many cases, neither the "-ta" affix nor the numerative word is used. For example, when we talk about time:


Ikki soat kutdik - We waited two hours

Bu yerda ikki yil yashadik - We lived here for two years

Bizga uch hafta kerak - We need three weeks


Nouns after numerals are not formed by the affix lar:


kok qalamlar blue pencils (no numerals)

beshta qalam five pencils

besh dona qalam five pieces of pencils

on tup daraxt ten trees




Yer - land, place.

Qay Which? What kind of...? (rarely used)


Qaysi Which? What kind of...? (frequently used)

Qaysi = Qay + si, si is possessive affix, 3rd person.



Qayer = qay + yer

Qayer? What kind of place is it?

Bu qayer? Bu dalamiz. What kind of place is it? This is our field. (dala field)



Let's recall such interrogative pronouns:


Qayerda? - Where?

Qayerga? - In which direction?

Qayerdan? - Where from?


Bu ko'cha qayerda? Where is this street?

Qayerga qarayapsiz? Where are you looking?

U qayerdan kelgan? Where did he (she) come from?



Bu yerga keling! Come here!


bu yerda here

u yerda there




Words to memorize


bola - child

aka - older brother

uka - younger brother

aka-uka - brothers

ota - father

ona - mother

ota-ona - parents

singil - younger sister

opa - older sister; mother

opa-singil - sisters

o'g'il - son

qiz - girl, daughter

kishi, odam - human

qariya - old man





Bolalarim bor - I have children


Akam sayrga chiqdi - My brother went for a walk


Bu odam mening o'g'lim - This man is my son


Singilingiz yashil ko'zlari bor - Your sister has green eyes


Qizimiz o'tgan yili tug'ilgan - Our daughter was born last year






In Uzbek, often the same word can act as both an adjective and an adverb.


Adjectives do not change in number.




Words to memorize (adjectives/adverbs):



katta - big; older / kichik - small; younger


yaxshi - good; well / yomon - bad


oq - white / qora - black


baland - tall / past - lower


uzun - long / qisqa, kalta - short


yosh - young / qari - old (man); eski (thing)


achchiq - bitter / shirin - sweet


issiq - hot / sovuq - cold


ogir - heavy / yengil - easy


tez - fast, rapid, quick, quickly / sekin - slow, slowly


ko'p - many, much / kam, oz - few, small







katta yo'l - big road


yaxshi odamlar - good people


yaxshi ishlamoq - to work well


Yaxshi qoling! - Stay well!


past tog' - low mountain


Oq yo'l! - Have a good trip!


oq bo'r - white chalk


sovuq suv - cold water


ogir chelak - heavy bucket


tez o'sish - rapid growth


sekin harakat - slow motion


ko'p daraxtlar - many trees


yosh ayol - young woman


kichik qiz - little girl


yomon kishi - bad guy


qora qor - black snow


baland bog' - high garden


uzun arqon - long rope


qisqa ko'cha - short street


qari kishi - old man


shirin konfet - sweet candy


issiq ko'l - hot lake


yengil ish - light work


kam miqdor - small amount


bir oz sut - a little of milk


eski uy - old house


achchiq tutun - bitter smoke




Imperative-subjunctive verbs


(buyruq-istak mayli)



In Uzbek, the imperative and the subjunctive moods of a verb are considered to be one mood.


We translate 1st person verbs as a wish, 2nd person verbs as an order/wish, 3rd person verbs as a wish for that person.



olmoq - to take (the affix "-moq" gives an indefinite verb form)


Olmani ol! - Take the apple!


Olma - apple. The "-ni" suffix is used in the accusative case, but not always:


Olma ol! - Take an apple!



Imperative-subjunctive affixes:



After the final vowel:


1st person, singular: -y; plural: -y-lik

2nd person, singular: no affix, or in polite form - "-ng"; plural: -ngiz

3rd person, singular: -sin; plural: sin or -sin-lar


After the final consonant:


1st person, singular: -ay; plural: -ay-lik

2nd person, singular: no affix, or in polite form - "-ing"; plural: -ingiz

3rd person, singular: -sin; plural: sin or -sin-lar



Words to memorize:



och - open


yop - close


o'tir - sit down, sit


tur - stand up, stand


yot - lie down, lie


ol - take


ber - give


ishla - work



Examples for Imperative-subjunctive:



Men ishlay. - I would work.


Biz ishlaylik. - We would work.


Sen ishla! - Work! / Siz ishlang! - Work please!


Siz ishlangiz! - Work (please)! (plural)


U ishlasin. - It would be nice for him (her) to work.


Ular ishlasin. (or "Ular ishlasinlar") - It would be nice for them to work.



Men o'tiray. - I would sit.


Biz o'tiraylik. - We would sit.


Sen o'tir! - Sit! / Siz o'tiring! - Sit down please!


Siz o'tiringiz! - Sit down (please)! (plural)


U o'tirsin. - It would be nice for him (her) to sit down.


Ular o'tirsin. (or "Ular o'tirsinlar") - It would be nice for them to sit down.




Words to memorize:



ha - yes


yo'q - no



bugun - today


hozir - now



kerak - "it is necessary"


mumkin - "it is permissible"







Bugun haftaning nechanchi kuni? - What day of the week is it today?


Bugun seshanba. - Today is Tuesday.


Eshikni qachon yopasiz? - When do you close the door?


Hozir yopaman. - I'm closing now.


Issiq suvmi? - Is it hot water?


Ha, bu issiq suv. - Yes, it's hot water.


Yo'q, bu sovuq suv. - No, it's cold water.


Bu nima uchun kerak? - Why is this necessary?


Bu kerak emas. - It is not necessary.


emas = not




Words to memorize:



qogoz - paper


kitob - book


matn - text


harf - letter


daftar - copybook


uy - home


ko'cha - street


yo'l - road


shahar - town


qishloq - village







Bu yaxshi kitobmi? - Is this a good book?


Ha, yaxshi. - Yes, good.


Aka, daftarni bering! - Brother, give me the copybook!


Yo'q, bu mening daftarim! - No, this is my copybook!




Compound words to memorize:



shu - this

shu-shu - ever since


o'sha - same

o'sha-o'sha - ever since


tez - quick

tez-tez - frequent


dona - piece, item

dona-dona - grainly, powdery

dona-dona qilib ...moq - (do something) clearly:

dona-dona qilib gapirmoq - speak clearly,

dona-dona qilib yozmoq - write clearly


juda - very, too much

juda-juda - absolutely


kalta - short

kalta-kalta - (do something) often and intermittent

kalta-kalta qadam bosmoq - to take small steps


rasta - shopping row

rasta-rasta - (stand, move) in rows, in a string


gala - horde, pack

gala-gala - like a horde, in a pack


taka - goat

taka-taka qilmoq - to seek through


xona - room

xona-xona - consisting of separate rooms, honeycomb, checkered


shoda - bundle, necklace

shoda-shoda - bundles; many, a lot of


shona - flower-bud

shona-shona - studded with buds


qayta - again

(qaytmoq - to return)

qayta-qayta - repeatedly, over and over again


g'udda - knob, pimple

g'udda-g'udda - knobby


halqa - circle, ring, (chain) link

halqa-halqa - in rings, in plumes of smoke:

tutun halqa-halqa bo'lib chiqmoqda - smoke billows in rings


boshqa - another

...-dan boshqa - except ...:

sendan boshqa - except you

boshqa-boshqa - separately, different


bo'lak - part, piece

bo'lak-bo'lak - in pieces, in parts


ayrim - special, separate

ayrim-ayrim - separately


alohida - separate, special, detached

alohida-alohida - separately




Demonstrative pronouns



Birlik (singular):



u = that, he, she


bu = this


shu = this here


o'sha = the one, the very



bunday = like this, like that


shunday = so, such


o'shanday = the same, as well



Ko'plik (plural):



ular = those, they


bular = these


shular = these here


o'shalar = those same







Ana u kim? - Who is he?

U sotuvchi. - He is a salesman.


Mana bu nima? - What is this?

Bu olma. - It's an apple.


U erda nima? - What is there?

U - daraxt. - That is a tree.


Ana shu koylak. - That's the coat.


Shu ko'chada yurdingizmi? - Did you walk down this street?


Ana osha kuni. - This is the day.



Bunday taom tezda tayyorlanadi. - Such a dish is prepared quickly.


Bu shunday yuz berdi. - It happened like this.


Ana o'shanday ishni qila olamiz. - We can do this kind of work.



Ular shaharga kelishdi. - They came to town.


Bular boshqa-boshqa narsalar. - These are different things.


Bu daraxtlar - teraklar. Shular eng baland. - These trees are poplars. These are the highest.


Odamlarni ko'ryapsizmi? O'shalar. - Do you see people? These are the ones.





Words to memorize:



savol - question


javob - answer






Savolingizni bering! - Ask your question! ("ingiz" - imperative-subjunctive affix, "ni" - accusative affix)


U menga javob bersin! - Let him give me the answer! ("sin" - imperative-subjunctive affix)




Words to memorize:



koz - eye


quloq - ear


qo'l - hand


yelka - shoulder


boyin - neck


qorin - belly






uning go'zal ko'zlari - her beautiful eyes


uzun quloqlar - long ears


Menga qo'lingni ber! (or: "Menga qoʻlingizni bering!") - Give me your hand!


qalin bo'yin - thick neck


katta qorin - big belly







Case formation in Uzbek language




There are six main cases in Uzbek language: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative and ablative:








Genitive (Possessive) Case. Possessive suffix NING



There is a special suffix construction in Uzbek which means belonging to. Unlike in English, Uzbek possession can be marked by both Possessor and Possessed. In Uzbek the Possessor is suffixed with -ning and Possessed is suffixed with im, -ing, -i, -miz, -ingiz, ngiz.


The formation of possessive relationship is following: the Possessor Anvar has a possession kitob or ona. When suffixed in Uzbek it becomes Anvarning kitobi (Anvars book) or Anvarning onasi (Anvars mother).


The plurals are formed by the adding -lar to the root word of either the possessor or the possessed or to both according to context. The possessive forms of personal pronouns are usually dropped when a noun already reflects possession: Mening ismim Barno vs. Ismim Barno.


Words in the possessive case in a sentence are always a definition and are ahead of the word being defined.







Bizning hovlimiz katta. Our yard is big.


Sening dosting aqlli. Your friend is smart.


Bu sening kitobingmi? Is this your book?


Bizning auditoriya katta. Our audience is huge.


Sening kozlaring juda chiroyli. Your eyes are beautiful.


Sizning akangiz qayerda ishlaydi? Where does your brother work?


Maktabning hovlisi chiroyli. The school yard is beautiful.


Sizning familiyangiz nima? What's your last name?


Sizning otingiz nima? What is your name?


Shaharning kochalari chiroyli. The streets of the city are beautiful.


Karimning otasi oqituvchi. Karim's father is a teacher.


Sinf jurnali qayerda? Where's the cool magazine?


Biz Alisher Navoiyning sherlarini oqidik. We read Alisher Navoi's poems.


Oqituvchimizning topshirigini bajardik. We have completed the teacher's task.


Ariqning suvi toza. The water of the ditch is clean.


Bizning kutubxonamizda kitob kop. There are many books in our library.


Respublikamizning poytaxti Toshkent. The capital of our republic is Tashkent.


Toshkentning binolari chiroyli. The buildings of Tashkent are beautiful.


Siz shaharning qaysi tumanida yashaysiz? What area of the city do you live in?


Kecha sening maqolangni oqidik. We read your article yesterday.


Mening fikrim shu. That's my opinion.




The possessive case can be formed - with the suffix -ning, and unformed - without the suffix -ning.



The formed possessive case denotes a specific, definite object:


Mening singlim ishga ketdi My sister has gone to work


Oquvchining otasi maktabga keldi The student's father came to school


Umarning ortoqlari kinoga ketdilar Umar's comrades went to the cinema



Informal possessive indicates an indefinite meaning:


Shahar ko'chalari uzun va keng bo'lishi kerak City streets should be long and wide




Often there are nouns in sentences for which the Possessor is not explicitly indicated.


Nouns in the 3rd person must be suffixed (-i or -si) in the following cases:



1. Ownership is known, even if the Possessor is not explicitly specified:


Shahardan tashqarida Sirdaryo oqadi. Daryosi sayozlashdi.


The Syrdarya River flows outside the city. The river became shallower.



2. It is said about a certain subject, the uniqueness of which is emphasized by the definition. In this case, -i (-si) serves as a definite article:


Bu Kickik Halqa yoli.


This is the Little Ring Road.




About haq, haqda, haqida



haq = truth,

haqda, haqida = about.


Bu kitob o'tmish olimlari haqida. - This book is about the scientists of the past.




Nima haqda yozmoqchisiz? - What do you want to write about?




Present-Future Tense. Presonal Endings of Predicates




The simplest and most frequently used grammatical tense in the Uzbek language is Present-Future.


It is so called because the form of verbs (or other parts of speech as a predicate) does not change depending on when an event occurs, in the present or in the future. Time is determined by the context or adverb of time.


For the case of the present tense, this is an analogue of the English Present Simple. By the way, there is also an analogue of Present Continuous in the Uzbek language, but we will talk about this later.






1. Men talabaman. Universitetda tarix fanini o'rganaman. Kechqurun kitob o'qiyman.


I am a student. I study history at university. I read books in the evenings. (Present)



2. Ertaga ishlamaymiz. Biz daryoga boramiz.


We will not work tomorrow. We will go to the river. (Future)



Sentences in the Present-Future are formed using the affixes "a" or "y" and "personal endings".


The personal ending is added to the verb or other part of speech used as a predicate. Since the predicate in the Uzbek language is almost always put at the end of a sentence, a significant part of sentences end in personal endings. This fact gives the originality of Turkic poetry.




Presonal Endings:



1st person, singular: man; plural: miz


2st person, singular: san; plural: siz


3st person, verb, singular: di; plural: di(lar)


3st person, other parts of speech, singular: no ending; plural: (lar)




Examples (predicate is a verb):



bilmoq to know


Men bilaman I know, I will know


Sen bilasan You know, You will know


U biladi He (she) knows, He (she) will know


Biz bilamiz We know, We will know


Siz bilasiz You know, You will know


Ular biladi OR Ular biladilar They know, They will know



ishlamoq to work


Men ishlayman I work, I will work


Sen ishlaysan You work, You will work


U ishlaydi He (she) works, He (she) will work


Biz ishlaymiz We work, We will work


Siz ishlaysiz You work, You will work


Ular ishlaydi OR Ular ishlaydilar They work, They will work




Examples (predicate is another part of speech):



Siz chiroylisiz You are beautiful


Ular kichik They are small


Ular bolalar They are children


Biz uydamiz We are at home


Men och emasman I'm not hungry (When we use "emas" = "not", the personal ending is added to the word "emas"!)




If a personal ending is used, the pronoun is often omitted:



Dushanba kunlari ishlayman I work on Mondays


Chiroylisiz You are beautiful


Uydamiz We are at home


Och emasman I'm not hungry





The interrogative form of verbs in the present-future is formed using the affix -mi, which is added to the end of the word:



Hamma narsani tushunasizmi? Ha, tushunaman. Do you understand everything? Yes I understand.


Ertaga ishlaysizmi? Ha, ishlayman. Will you work tomorrow? Yes, I will work.




The negative form of verbs in the present-future is formed by adding the affix -ma, which is inserted after the root. Since "ma" ends with a vowel, the affix "y" follows.


Hamma narsani tushunasizmi? Yo'q tushunmayman. Do you understand everything? No, I don't understand.


Ertaga ishlaysizmi? Yo'q, ishlamayman. Will you work tomorrow? No, I will not work.




Time. Time of day. Frequently used adverbs of time



vaqt time


payt moment of time



tong dawn


erta morning


kun day


kech evening


tun - night



tongda at dawn


ertalab - in the morning


kunduzi - in the afternoon


kechqurun - in the evening


tunda, kechasi - at night



hozir, endi now


bugun today


kecha yesterday


ertaga tomorrow







yosh age; young



Siz necha yoshdasiz? - How old are you?



Men yigirma yoshdaman. - I'm twenty years old.




Men yigirmadaman. - I'm twenty.




Yigirmadaman. - I'm twenty.



Here "da" is the affix of the locative case; "man" personal ending.



Similarly, we can ask and answer:



Men necha yoshdsman? - How old am I?


Siz qirq yoshdasiz. - You are fourty years old.



U necha yoshda? - How old is he (she)?


U ellik bir yoshda. - He (she) is fifty-one years old. (there is no personal ending here, because "yosh" is not a verb)



Akang necha yoshda? - How old is your brother?


Akam o'ttiz uchda. - My brother is thirty-three.




Verbs to memorize:



bor - there is/are, existing, have

Menda chelak bor - I have a bucket


bo'lmoq - to be, to take place, happen


Siz kim bo'lasiz? - Who are you?

Sog' bo'ling! - Be healthy!

Bor bo'ling! - I wish you to live!


bilmoq - to know

bilim - knowledge

tushunmoq - to understand


yashamoq - to live (anywhere)

qilmoq - to do


qaramoq - to look

ko'rmoq - to see


eshitmoq - to hear, to listen

tinglamoq - to listen

quloq solmoq - to listen

quloq bermoq - to listen


solmoq - to put


o'qimoq - to read; study (somewhere)

yozmoq - to write


gapirmoq - to speak, to talk

gaplashmoq - to speak, to talk, to negotiate

aytmoq - to say, to speak, to tell; to call, to invite

demoq - to tell (the words) (a case of direct speech, retelling)

so'zlamoq - to talk, to tell, to narrate

(so'z - word)

so'ylamoq - to talk, to tell, to narrate


yurmoq - to go, to move

bormoq - to go (anywhere); to reach

kelmoq - to come

qolmoq - to stay (anywhere)

ketmoq - to go out

qochmoq - to run away

qaytmoq - to return

kechmoq - to overpass, to go through something; to forgive

otmoq - to pass, to step over

kirmoq - to enter

chiqmoq - to go outside, to leave


yordamlashmoq, yordam bermoq - to help

ko'maklashmoq - to provide support, to help, to help each other



Compound verbs:


chiqib qoldi appeared ("leaving, got up")


qochib ketdi disappeared ("left running away")


If we don't use "a" ("y"), but use a personal ending, this is the Past tense (qoldi, ketdi).





boshlanmoq - to begin

bitirmoq - to finish

tugatmoq - to finish


turmoq - to stand, to stand up

o'tirmoq - to sit, to sit down


ochmoq - to open

yopmoq - to close


olmoq - to take

bermoq - to give




Examples sentences:



Bu yerga keling! - Come here!


Bu yerga qarang! - Look here!


Eshiting! Tinglang! Quloq soling! Quloq bering! - Listen!


Qaytaring! - Return!


Qaytaring! Takrorlang! - Repeat!


Javob bering! - Answer!


Ichkariga kiring! - Come on in!


Kitob o'qing! - Read a book!


Kitobni o'qing! - Read the book!


Derazani oching! - Open the window!


Derazani ochmang! - Don't open the window!


Buni qilma! - Don't do it!


Gapirmang! Gaplashmang! - Do not speak!


Menga yordam bering! - Help me!



Bu dori menga yordamlashadi. - This medicine helps me.


Ular bir-birlariga ko'maklashadi. - They help each other.


Ertaga u unga bir og'iz so'z aytmaydi. - Tomorrow he won't say a word to her.





Earlier it was said that the possessive case affix "-ning" and the possessive affix "-i (-si)" can be omitted. Put crudely, they are used in the same case when in English we use the definite article "the", and are not used in the indefinite case.


Approximately the same can be said about the accusative affix "-ni".


That is, the accusative case, like the possessive, can be "formed" and "unformed".



Example of an unformed accusative case:



Tez orada uy quramiz. - We will build a house soon.


Here the word "uy" has no affix for the same reason that in English we use the indefinite article.



The cases of the formed accusative need to be described in more detail.



1. With proper names:


Rashidni toping - Find Rashid.


2. With personal, interrogative or reflexive pronouns:


U meni oz uyiga taklif qildi. He invited me to his house.


Siz kimni sorayapsiz? Who are you asking?


Anna ozini hech kimga tanishtirmadi. Anna did not introduce herself to anyone.


3. With nominalized adjectives:


Qizilni oling. - Take the red.


U bilganini sozlab bersin. Let him tell what he knows. (bilganini = bil + gan + ini, "gan" turns a verb into a past participle)


Birinchisini oling, men ikkinchisini olaman. Get the first one, I'll get the second one.


4. With words defined by the form of the possessive case:


Uning otasini uchrashdim. I met his father.


5. With words formed using the possessive case affix "-ning":


Men bugun kelganingni eshitdim. I heard you came today.


6. With participles:


Kelganini kordim. I saw him come.


7. With verbal nouns:


Akam oqishni bitirdi. My brother graduated. (oqishni: oqimoq to read; to study; -ish is an affix forming a verbal noun)


8. If a word in the accusative case is separated from the predicate by other members of the sentence:


Vazifani soat beshda tugatdik. We finished the task at five o'clock.


9. When using some verbs of motion, we consider that we are in the accusative case and also use "-ni":


Shaharni kezmoq. Walking around the city.


In this block materials of the textbook are used:

G.H.Bakieva et al., "Uzbek language for the CIS countries".





The logic of changing adverbs of time according to cases is best demonstrated by examples with the most commonly used adverbs.


We already know the words:


kun - day

tun night

tong - dawn

erta - morning

kech - evening

kecha yesterday; night

ertaga - tomorrow


ertaga ertalab tomorrow morning

kecha ertalab yesterday morning

ertaga kechqurun tomorrow evening

ertalab in the morning, kechqurun in the evening

bugun kechqurun tonight



avval before, first

Avval ishni tugatamiz We'll finish the job first

Sendan avval ko'rganman I've seen it before you


oldin before, ago

Ikki yil oldin Two years ago

Ovqatdan oldin Before meals

Sizdan sal oldin Just before you

oldinda ahead

oldinda boradi goes ahead

oldindan in advance

oldinga forward


ilgari ago, before; forward

Buyuk alloma ming yil(dan) ilgari yashagan edi The great thinker lived 1000 years ago

U ilgari ketadi He goes ahead

ilgaridan in advance, from the beginning


keyin after

U mendan keyin kirdi He came in after me

keyinda behind

U keyinda qoladi - He falls behind

keyindan after


so'ng after (the end of something), later

U bir yildan so'ng o'qishni bitiradi He graduates in a year

ertadan so'ng day after tomorrow



osha that

osha kecha that evening


oshanda at that time, then

Oshanda mening shaxsiy uyim bor edi. I had my own house then.


oshandan buyon since

buyon = bu+yon; yon side, sidepiece


Qachondan beri? Since when?

qachon when, as soon as


paytgacha until then (payt - moment of time)



yonida beside (by place or time)

(yon side, sidepiece)

yoniga nearby

yonidan past (something)


deraza yonida - next to the window

Aziz oʻchoq yoniga oʻtiradi. Aziz sits by the fire.

U yonidan o'tib ketdi. He walked past me.


yaqinda recently; soon

(yaqin close (object, person))

yaqindan close (to something or someone); recently


Yaqinda daryoga bordik. - We went to the river recently.

Biz yaqindan tanishmiz. - We are intimately familiar.



allaqachon a long time ago

allaqachon kelgan already arrived





Ranglar Colors



rang color, tone, tinge

tus hue, shade, color; appearance, manner


Qanday qizil rang sizni his qilishadi? How does red make you feel?

Tarkibidagi gemoglobin qonga qizil tus beradi. Hemoglobin, which is part of the blood, gives it a red color.



rangli colored

rangli bo'yoqlar colored paints

tusli colored

qora tusli ot black horse


bo'yoq paint, color

gul flower

guldasta bunch of flowers

chechak flower



Asosiy ranglar Primary colors:


oq white

qora black

qizil red

kok blue

yashil green

sariq yellow



Bu qaysi rang? What is color?

Bu qizil rang. This is red.


Gulning rangi qanday? OR Gul qanday rangda? What color is the flower?

Gulning rangi qizil. OR Gul qizil rangda. The flower is red.






Uzbeks often say "kok" instead of the word "yashil". For example: kok choy (green tea), kok o't (green grass). But: Yashil bo'yoq (Green paint).






Uzbek tongue twister:


Oq choynakka oq qopqoq, kok choynakka kok qopqoq.

White lid on white teapot, blue lid on blue teapot.



rasm drawing, picture

surat picture, drawing

asar, san'at asari work of art

rassom artist

rasm chizmoq to paint







Last updated:     01.07.2022,   16:00.




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