***  O'ZBEK  TILI   *   UZBEK  LANGUAGE  ***









This is a copy of my Telegram-channel for learning Uzbek language.




Uzbek, like other Turkic languages, is interesting for its logic, consistency. This is its difference from modern Germanic languages, those formed by multiple mixing of Slavic and Germanic languages and multiple compromises between them. The Turkic languages have not changed much over the centuries, keeping the pure logic of constructing words and sentences...




The Uzbek language has 2 alphabets. One is based on the Latin alphabet, the other is based on the Cyrillic alphabet. The Latin based alphabet consists of 26 letters, three digraphs sh, ch and ng, and an apostrophe. The Cyrillic based alphabet consists of 35 letters.





Қ қ Ғ ғ Ҳ ҳ




B b D d F f G g H h I i

J j K k L l m N n P p Q q

R r S s t U u V v X x Y y Z z

Oʻ oʻ Gʻ gʻ Sh sh Ch ch Ng ng



Pronunciation of letters:


" A " as in the word "cat"

" B " as in the word "bat"

" D " as in the word "den"

" E " as in the word "bet"

" F " as in the word "fish"

" G " as in the word "go"

" H " as in the word "house"

" I " as in the word "me"

" J " as in the word "joke" or as in "vision"

" K " as in the word "cold"

" L " as in the word "list"

" M " as in the word "man"

" N " as in the word "next"

" O " as in the word "hot" or as in "call"

" P " as in the word "pin"

" Q " like a " K ", but further back in the throat

" R " as in the word "rat" (trilled, like in Russian)

" S " as in the word "sick"

" T " as in the word "toe"

" U " as in the word "put" or as in "choose"

" V " as in the word "van"

" X " - "ch" as in German "Bach" or Scottish "loch"

" Y " as in the word "yes"

" Z " as in the word "zebra"

" O' " as in the word "row", "fur"

" G' " like a French or German "r"

" Sh " as in the word "shoe"

" Ch " as in the word "chew"

" Ng " as in the word "king"


Apostrophe is used either

1) to mark the phonetic glottal stop when put immediately before a vowel or

2) to mark a long vowel when placed immediately after a vowel.






Examples with " a ":


ana - that, there (points to something distant)

mana - this, here (points to something close)


aka - older brother

uka - younger brother

aka-uka - brothers

ana aka - that is the older brother

mana uka - this is the younger brother

mana aka-uka - these are brothers



Almost always, the stress in Uzbek words is put on the last syllable!




Examples with " i ":


ip - thread

igna (nina) - needle

iz - track(s)

imzo - signature



Misollar - Examples:


Mana ip - This is a thread

Ana ip - That is a thread

Mana nina (igna) - This is a needle

Mana iz -  This is a track (These are tracks)

Mana imzo - This is signature




Examples with " o ":


non - bread

bola - child

ol - take

olma apple



Misollar - Examples:


Mana non - This is a bread

Mana bola - This is a child

Karim, nonni ol - Karim, take a bread

Lola, olmani ol - Lola, take an apple



In Uzbek, the predicate is at the end of a sentence!





Examples with " u ":


bu - this, "this is"


uzum - vine, grapes

uchun - for

uy - home

uzun - long



Misollar - Examples:


Bu olma - This is an apple

Sardor, bu olmani ol - Sardor, take this apple

Mana uy - This is a home

Mana uzum - This is a vine

Umida, uzumdan ol - Umida, take these grapes

Mana Karim uchun uy - This house is for Karim

Bu uzum shirin - These grapes are sweet

Aziz, uzumdan ol - Aziz, take these grapes

Sevara uchun uzum ol - Take these grapes for Sevara


Uzbek prepositions are always placed after the word to which they refer!




Examples with " e ":


etik - high boot

eshik - door

el - people

erkak - man

ertaga - tomorrow

echki - goat

kelmoq - to come


The affix "-moq" gives an indefinite verb form.



Misollar - Examples:


Bu echki - This is a goat

Mana eshik - Here is the door

Ana etik - There is a high boot

Karim, ertaga kel - Karim, come tomorrow

Aziz, etikni ol - Aziz, take the high boot

Tursun, eshikni och - Tursun, open the door

Lola, echkini olib ket - Lola, take the goat away





There are no prefixes in the Uzbek language. But there are many affixes that go in a certain order after the root of the word. The root of a word, as a rule, consists of 1-2 syllables; the main part of the word is often a set of affixes.


The affix "-ni" is used in the accusative case.





Examples with " o' ":


tort - four

bor - chalk

koz - eye

kocha - street

dost - friend

soz - word

oz - own, -self-




Misollar - Examples:


Mana bor - Here is the chalk

Tursun, borni ol - Tursun, take the chalk

Uzun kocha - Long street

Sozlarni oqing - Read the words

O'z oilam - My own family

Men buni o'zim qilaman - I do it myself






Examples with " q ":


qor - snow

quyosh - sun

quloq - ear, ears

qogoz - paper

ortoq - comrade

qishloq - village




Misollar - Examples:


Qor yogdi - It was snowing

Quyosh nurlari - Sun rays

Quloq solmoq - listen

Yozuv qogozi - Writing paper

Qoshni qishloq - Neighboring village





Examples with " g' ":


goz - goose

bog - garden

tog - mountain

galaba - victory

gayrat - energy, ardour




Misollar - Examples:


Goz bolasi - Gosling

Goz goshti - Goose meat

Mevazor bog - Orchard

Tog etagi - Foot of the mountain

Tog choqqisi - Peak

Galaba qozonmoq - To win a victory

Gayrat qilmoq - To act energetically





Examples with " h ":


ham - and, both

hayot - life

hozir - now

hazil - joke

hikoya - story

hamma - all

hafta - week

harakat - movement, motion




Misollar - Examples:


Kocha harakati Street traffic

Men ham oqiyman, sen ham oqiysan And I will teach, and you will

Hayot kechirmoq To spend life, to live

Hazil qilmoq To joke   (qilmoq - to do)

Hikoyalar toplami Collection of stories

Hamma narsa All things

Otgan hafta Last week





Examples with " j ":


juda - very

juma - Friday

joja - chicken

jim - calm, quiet

janjal - scandal

janub - south






Examples with " ng ":



ong consciousness

tong dawn

bong scream

jang battle






Kishilik olmoshlari - Personal pronouns



Men I

Sen Thou

U He, She, It

Biz We

Siz You

Ular They





In Uzbek, as in other Turkic languages, there is no grammatical gender.




Soroq olmoshlari - Interrogative pronouns

The interrogative pronoun Kim? - Who? - is used only in relation to people, and in relation to everything else Nima? - What?

Misollar Examples:

Bu kim? Who is this?
Bu Rustam. This is Rustam.
U kim? Who is it?
U muhandis. He is an engineer.
Siz kimsiz? Who are you?
Men shifokorman. I am a doctor.
Bu nima? What is this?
Bu kitob. This is a book.
Mana bu nima? What is this?
Mana bu avtobus. This is a bus.




Interrogative sentences are constructed in three ways:

1. Using interrogative particles (mi, -chi, -a):

Bu yaxshi kitobmi? - It is a good book, isn't it(kitob - book)

Siz talabamisiz? - Are you a student?   (talaba - student;   -siz - 2nd person plural affix)

U-chi? What about him?

U shifokor-a? - He is a doctor, isn't he?

2. Using interrogative pronouns:

Ana bu nima? - What is there?

3. Using interrogative intonation:

Soat ikki bo'ldi? - It's two o'clock now (isn't it)?  
(soat = hour, ikki = two, bo'ldi = was   (bo'l = is, -di = past tense affix))


The word order in the interrogative sentence is usually the same as in the answer. That is, the interrogative pronoun is in the place of the word containing the answer.





Important affix "LAR:



"Lar is the main affix for the plural:


bolalar children, sozlar words, toglar mountains etc.



In some cases, this affix can be used not only with nouns, but also with other parts of speech, for example, with verbs:


Qidirdilar, ammo topolmadilar - They searched, but could not find.



In addition, this affix is used to convey a respectful attitude:


otamlar - my dear father, onamlar - my dear mother;


Xush kelibsizlar! - Welcome dear guest!




Egalik qoshimchalari - Possessive affixes:



The Uzbek language has possessive affixes that are attached to names to indicate that a given object belongs to any person or object.


After the final vowel:


1st person, singular: m; plural: miz

2nd person, singular: ng; plural: ngiz

3rd person, singular: si; plural: si or lari


After the final consonant:


1st person, singular: im; plural: imiz

2nd person, singular: ing; plural: ingiz

3rd person, singular: i; plural: i or lari



This refers to the person and number inherited from the person or thing to which the object belongs.

In the third person, the number is not inherited. The affix "lari" = "lar"+"i", here "lar" gives us the plural of the subordinate object.




my house uyim; our house uyimiz;

my houses uylarim; our houses - uylarimiz;


your (thy) house uying; your house - uyingiz;

your (thy) houses uylaring; your houses - uylaringiz;


his house - uyi; their house uyi;

his houses - uylari; their houses uylari.




Examples with a final vowel:


otam my father

otang your (thy) father

otasi his (her) father

otamiz our father

otangiz your father

otasi their father




Examples with a final consonant:


maktabim my school

maktabing your (thy) school

maktabi his (her) school

maktabimiz our school

maktabingiz your school

maktabi their school




Examples sentences:


Kitobim qani? Where is my book?

Kitobingni ol Take your book.

Kitobini ber Give me his (her) book.

Kitobingni oqi Read your book.

Kitobimni oqi Read my book.

Kitobingni oqiyman I will read your book.

Kitobimiz kimda? Who has our book?

Kitobingiz stolda Your book is on the table.

Kitobingizni kim oqidi? Who has read your book?

Kitobingizni men oqidim I read your book.




Names of the days of the week:


Yakshanba - Sunday

Dushanba - Monday

Seshanba - Tuesday

Chorshanba - Wednesday

Payshanba - Thursday

Juma - Friday

Shanba Saturday




Examples of yes/no questions:


Aziz shanba kuni ishladimi? - Did Aziz work on Saturday?

Ha, Aziz shanba kuni ishladi. - Yes, Aziz worked on Saturday.

Yoq, Aziz shanba kuni ishlamadi. - No, Aziz did not work on Saturday.


Sen hafta kunlarini aytib bera olasanmi? - Can you name the days of the week?

Ha, aytib bera olaman, marhamat. - Yes, I can, please.


Siz shanba kuni ishlaysizmi? Do you work on Saturday?

Dushanba kuni majlis boladimi? Will there be a meeting on Monday?


Lola dushanba kuni ishga boradimi? (or "Lola dushanbada ishga boradimi?") - Will Lola go to work on Monday?

Ha, Lola dushanba kuni ishga boradi. - Yes, Lola will go to work on Monday.

Seshanba kuni-chi? - And on Tuesday?

Seshanba kuni ham boradi. (or "Seshanbada ham boradi") - Yes, and on Tuesday, too, will go.




Interrogative sentences can be formed using the following interrogative pronouns:


Kim?, Kimlar? Who? (We say "Kimlar" if we know that there are several persons)

Nima?, Nimalar? What? (We say "Nimalar" if we know there are multiple items)


Qanday? Which?, What kind of...?, How?

Qanday qilib? - How?, In what way?


Qaysi? Which?

Qaysi biri? - Which one of...?


Qancha?, Necha? How much?, How many?

Nechta? How many (items)?

Nechanchi? Which (one) is on the bill?


Qachon? When?

Qachondan beri? Since when?


Qayerda? - Where?

Qayerga? - In which direction?

Qayerdan? - Where from?


Nega? - Why?

Nimaga? - Why? For what?




Examples of whquestions:


Bu qanday qalam? Bu qora qalam.

What kind of pencil is this? This is a black pencil.


Teatr qaysi ko'chada joylashgan? Teatr Zarafshon ko'chasida joylashgan.

Which street is the theater located on? The theater is located on Zarafshon Street.


Siz qayerda o'qiysiz? Men universitetda o'qiyman.

Where do you study? I am studying at university.


U nimaga qiziqadi? U tarixga qiziqadi.

What is he interested in? He is interested in history.


Siz haftaning qaysi kuni dam olasiz?

Which day of the week do you rest?


Haftaning qaysi kunlari ishlaysiz?

What days of the week do you work?


Yakshanba kuni qayerga bormoqchisiz?

Where do you want to go on Sunday?




There are 2 features of the use of possessive affixes:



1. At the root of some words, a vowel in the second syllable disappears:


singil (sister) singlim, singlimiz, singling, singlingiz, singlisi (my sister, our sister, );


shahar (town) shahrim, ;


bo'yin (neck) bo'ynim, ;


qorin (belly) qornim, , qorni.


Voy qornim! = Woe is me!



2. At the root of two-syllable words ending in the consonants k or q,


- k changes to g: ko'ylak (shirt) ko'ylagi, chelak (bucket) chelagi, yurk (heart) yurgi,


- q changes to g': o'rtoq (comrade) o'rtog'i, qishloq (village) qishlog'i, botlq (little camel) botlgi.







son - numeral, number

yil year

oy - month

hafta week

kun - day

soat hour


Numerals are divided into cardinal (miqdor son) and ordinal (tartib son).

Cardinal numerals answer the questions "Qancha?", "Nechta?", "Necha?".

Ordinal numerals answer the question "nechanchi" (which) and are formed by adding suffixes to cardinal numerals:


-nchi (after final vowels);

-inchi (after final consonants).



1 bir

2 ikki

3 uch

4 tort

5 besh

6 olti

7 yetti

8 sakkiz

9 toqqiz

10 on

20 yigirma

30 ottiz

40 qirq

50 ellik

60 oltmish

70 yetmish

80 sakson

90 toqson

100 yuz

1000 ming






Ordinal numerals examples:



Uchinchi eshikdan kir! - Enter the third door!


Bu qirq oltinchi uy - This is the forty sixth house


Ertaga o'n birinchi dars bo'ladi Tomorrow will be the eleventh lesson


Birinchi yil o'tdi The first year has passed




The use of cardinal numerals in sentences often looks like Number + ta + Noun:



Bu ko'chada sakkizta uy bor - There are eight houses on this street

Yigirma yettita olma bor - There are twenty seven apples



Another way is to use numerative words


Here are the most used numerative words:


dona piece, item

nusxa example of a book or a document

bosh animal unit

tup plant unit

nafar person

juft couple

yosh - used to indicate age (yosh young)




yetti dona daftar seven copy-books

tort tup daraxt four trees

on nafar oquvchi ten students


In many cases, neither the "-ta" affix nor the numerative word is used. For example, when we talk about time:


Ikki soat kutdik - We waited two hours

Bu yerda ikki yil yashadik - We lived here for two years

Bizga uch hafta kerak - We need three weeks


Nouns after numerals are not formed by the affix lar:


kok qalamlar blue pencils (no numerals)

beshta qalam five pencils

besh dona qalam five pieces of pencils

on tup daraxt ten trees




Yer - land, place.

Qay Which? What kind of...? (rarely used)


Qaysi Which?

Qaysi = Qay + si, si is possessive affix, 3rd person.



Qayer = qay + yer

Qayer? What kind of place is it?

Bu qayer? Bu dalamiz. What kind of place is it? This is our field. (dala field)



Let's recall such interrogative pronouns:


Qayerda? - Where?

Qayerga? - In which direction?

Qayerdan? - Where from?


Bu ko'cha qayerda? Where is this street?

Qayerga qarayapsiz? Where are you looking?

U qayerdan kelgan? Where did he (she) come from?



Bu yerga keling! Come here!


bu yerda here

u yerda there





- Men Ozbekistondan keldim.

- O'zbekistoning qayeridansiz? qa+yer+i+dan

- Toshkentda yashayman.


- I came from Uzbekistan.

- Where in Uzbekistan are you from?

- I live in Tashkent.




Words to memorize


bola - child

aka - older brother

uka - younger brother

aka-uka - brothers

ota - father

ona - mother

ota-ona - parents

singil - younger sister

opa - older sister; mother

opa-singil - sisters

o'g'il - son

qiz - girl, daughter

kishi, odam - human

qariya - old man





Bolalarim bor - I have children


Akam sayrga chiqdi - My brother went for a walk


Bu odam mening o'g'lim - This man is my son


Singlingiz yashil ko'zlari bor - Your sister has green eyes


Qizimiz o'tgan yili tug'ilgan - Our daughter was born last year






In Uzbek, often the same word can act as both an adjective and an adverb.


Adjectives do not change in number.




Words to memorize (adjectives/adverbs):



katta - big; older / kichik - small; younger


yaxshi - good; well / yomon - bad


oq - white / qora - black


baland - tall / past - lower


uzun - long / qisqa, kalta - short


yosh - young / qari - old (man); eski (thing)


achchiq - bitter / shirin - sweet


issiq - hot / sovuq - cold


ogir - heavy / yengil - easy


tez - fast, rapid, quick, quickly / sekin - slow, slowly


ko'p - many, much / kam, oz - few, small







katta yo'l - big road


yaxshi odamlar - good people


yaxshi ishlamoq - to work well


Yaxshi qoling! - Stay well!


past tog' - low mountain


Oq yo'l! - Have a good trip!


oq bo'r - white chalk


sovuq suv - cold water


ogir chelak - heavy bucket


tez o'sish - rapid growth


sekin harakat - slow motion


ko'p daraxtlar - many trees


yosh ayol - young woman


kichik qiz - little girl


yomon kishi - bad guy


qora qor - black snow


baland bog' - high garden


uzun arqon - long rope


qisqa ko'cha - short street


qari kishi - old man


shirin konfet - sweet candy


issiq ko'l - hot lake


yengil ish - light work


kam miqdor - small amount


bir oz sut - a little of milk


eski uy - old house


achchiq tutun - bitter smoke




Imperative-subjunctive verbs


(buyruq-istak mayli)



In Uzbek, the imperative and the subjunctive moods of a verb are considered to be one mood.


We translate 1st person verbs as a wish, 2nd person verbs as an order/wish, 3rd person verbs as a wish for that person.



olmoq - to take (the affix "-moq" gives an indefinite verb form)


Olmani ol! - Take the apple!


Olma - apple. The "-ni" suffix is used in the accusative case, but not always:


Olma ol! - Take an apple!



Imperative-subjunctive affixes:



After the final vowel:


1st person, singular: -y; plural: -y-lik

2nd person, singular: no affix, or in polite form - "-ng"; plural: -ngiz

3rd person, singular: -sin; plural: sin or -sin-lar


After the final consonant:


1st person, singular: -ay; plural: -ay-lik

2nd person, singular: no affix, or in polite form - "-ing"; plural: -ingiz

3rd person, singular: -sin; plural: sin or -sin-lar


If we are in the case of 3rd person pl. and we discard -lar, it turns out a less respectful, commanding tone.




Words to memorize:



och - open


yop - close


o'tir - sit down, sit


tur - stand up, stand


yot - lie down, lie


ol - take


ber - give


ishla - work



Examples for Imperative-subjunctive:



Men ishlay. - I would work.


Biz ishlaylik. - Let's work.


Sen ishla! - Work! / Siz ishlang! - Work please!


Siz ishlangiz! - Work (please)! (plural)


U ishlasin. - It would be nice for him (her) to work.


Ular ishlasin. (or "Ular ishlasinlar") - It would be nice for them to work.



Men o'tiray. - I would sit.


Biz o'tiraylik. - Let's sit down.


Sen o'tir! - Sit! / Siz o'tiring! - Sit down please!


Siz o'tiringiz! - Sit down (please)! (plural)


U o'tirsin. - It would be nice for him (her) to sit down.


Ular o'tirsin. (or "Ular o'tirsinlar") - It would be nice for them to sit down.




Words to memorize:



ha - yes


yo'q - no



bugun - today


hozir - now



kerak - "it is necessary"


mumkin - "it is permissible"







Bugun haftaning nechanchi kuni? - What day of the week is it today?


Bugun seshanba. - Today is Tuesday.


Eshikni qachon yopasiz? - When do you close the door?


Hozir yopaman. - I'm closing now.


Issiq suvmi? - Is it hot water?


Ha, bu issiq suv. - Yes, it's hot water.


Yo'q, bu sovuq suv. - No, it's cold water.


Bu nima uchun kerak? - Why is this necessary?


Bu kerak emas. - It is not necessary.


emas = not




Words to memorize:



qogoz - paper


kitob - book


matn - text


harf - letter


daftar - copybook


uy - home


ko'cha - street


yo'l - road


shahar - town


qishloq - village







Bu yaxshi kitobmi? - Is this a good book?


Ha, yaxshi. - Yes, good.


Aka, daftarni bering! - Brother, give me the copybook!


Yo'q, bu mening daftarim! - No, this is my copybook!




Compound words to memorize:



shu - this

shu-shu - ever since


o'sha - same

o'sha-o'sha - ever since


tez - quick

tez-tez - frequent


dona - piece, item

dona-dona - grainly, powdery

dona-dona qilib ...moq - (do something) clearly:

dona-dona qilib gapirmoq - speak clearly,

dona-dona qilib yozmoq - write clearly


juda - very, too much

juda-juda - absolutely


kalta - short

kalta-kalta - (do something) often and intermittent

kalta-kalta qadam bosmoq - to take small steps


rasta - shopping row

rasta-rasta - (stand, move) in rows, in a string


gala - horde, pack

gala-gala - like a horde, in a pack


taka - goat

taka-taka qilmoq - to seek through


xona - room

xona-xona - consisting of separate rooms, honeycomb, checkered


shoda - bundle, necklace

shoda-shoda - bundles; many, a lot of


shona - flower-bud

shona-shona - studded with buds


qayta - again

(qaytmoq - to return)

qayta-qayta - repeatedly, over and over again


g'udda - knob, pimple

g'udda-g'udda - knobby


halqa - circle, ring, (chain) link

halqa-halqa - in rings, in plumes of smoke:

tutun halqa-halqa bo'lib chiqmoqda - smoke billows in rings


boshqa - another

...-dan boshqa - except ...:

sendan boshqa - except you

boshqa-boshqa - separately, different


bo'lak - part, piece

bo'lak-bo'lak - in pieces, in parts


ayrim - special, separate

ayrim-ayrim - separately


alohida - separate, special, detached

alohida-alohida - separately




Demonstrative pronouns



Birlik (singular):



u = that, he, she


bu = this


shu = this here


o'sha = the one, the very



bunday = like this, like that


shunday = so, such


o'shanday = the same, as well



Ko'plik (plural):



ular = those, they


bular = these


shular = these here


o'shalar = those same







Ana u kim? - Who is he?

U sotuvchi. - He is a salesman.


Mana bu nima? - What is this?

Bu olma. - It's an apple.


U erda nima? - What is there?

U - daraxt. - That is a tree.


Shu ko'chada yurdingizmi? - Did you walk down this street?


O'sha uyni ko'ryapsanmi? - Do you see that house?


Osha kuni. - That day.



Bunday taom tezda tayyorlanadi. - Such a dish is prepared quickly.


Bu shunday yuz berdi. - It happened like this.


Siz o'shanday yoshsiz hamon. - You are still so young.



Ular shaharga kelishdi. - They came to town.


Bu boshqa-boshqa narsalar. - These are different things.

Bular boshqa-boshqa. - These are different.


Bu daraxtlar - teraklar. Shular eng baland. - These trees are poplars. These are the highest.


Odamlarni ko'ryapsizmi? O'shalar. - Do you see people? These are the ones.





Words to memorize:



savol - question


javob - answer






Savolingizni bering! - Ask your question! ("ingiz" - possessive affix, "ni" - accusative affix)


U menga javob bersin! - Let him give me the answer! ("sin" - imperative-subjunctive affix)




Words to memorize:



koz - eye


quloq - ear


qo'l - hand


yelka - shoulder


boyin - neck


qorin - belly






uning go'zal ko'zlari - her beautiful eyes


uzun quloqlar - long ears


Menga qo'lingni ber! (or: "Menga qoʻlingizni bering!") - Give me your hand!


qalin bo'yin - thick neck


katta qorin - big belly







Case formation in Uzbek language




There are six main cases in Uzbek language: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative and ablative:








Genitive (Possessive) Case. Possessive suffix NING



There is a special suffix construction in Uzbek which means belonging to. Unlike in English, Uzbek possession can be marked by both Possessor and Possessed. In Uzbek the Possessor is suffixed with -ning and Possessed is suffixed with im, -ing, -i, -miz, -ingiz, ngiz.


The formation of possessive relationship is following: the Possessor Anvar has a possession kitob or ona. When suffixed in Uzbek it becomes Anvarning kitobi (Anvars book) or Anvarning onasi (Anvars mother).


The plurals are formed by the adding -lar to the root word of either the possessor or the possessed or to both according to context. The possessive forms of personal pronouns are usually dropped when a noun already reflects possession: Mening ismim Barno vs. Ismim Barno.


Words in the possessive case in a sentence are always a definition and are ahead of the word being defined.







Bizning hovlimiz katta. Our yard is big.


Sening dosting aqlli. Your friend is smart.


Bu sening kitobingmi? Is this your book?


Bizning auditoriya katta. Our auditorium is huge.


Sening kozlaring juda chiroyli. Your eyes are very beautiful.


Sizning akangiz qayerda ishlaydi? Where does your brother work?


Maktabning hovlisi chiroyli. The school yard is beautiful.


Sizning familiyangiz nima? What's your last name?


Sizning otingiz nima? What is your name?


Shaharning kochalari chiroyli. The streets of the city are beautiful.


Karimning otasi oqituvchi. Karim's father is a teacher.


Sinf jurnali qayerda? Where's the class register?


Biz Alisher Navoiyning sherlarini oqidik. We read Alisher Navoi's poems.


Oqituvchimizning topshirigini bajardik. We have completed the teacher's task.


Ariqning suvi toza. The water of the ditch is clean.


Bizning kutubxonamizda kitob kop. There are many books in our library.


Respublikamizning poytaxti Toshkent. The capital of our republic is Tashkent.


Toshkentning binolari chiroyli. The buildings of Tashkent are beautiful.


Siz shaharning qaysi tumanida yashaysiz? What area of the city do you live in?


Kecha sening maqolangni oqidik. We read your article yesterday.


Mening fikrim shu. That's my opinion.




The possessive case can be formed - with the suffix -ning, and unformed - without the suffix -ning.



The formed possessive case denotes a specific, definite object:


Mening singlim ishga ketdi My sister has gone to work


Oquvchining otasi maktabga keldi The student's father came to school


Umarning ortoqlari kinoga ketdilar Umar's comrades went to the cinema



Informal possessive indicates an indefinite meaning:


Shahar ko'chalari uzun va keng bo'lishi kerak City streets should be long and wide




Often there are nouns in sentences for which the Possessor is not explicitly indicated.


Nouns in the 3rd person must be suffixed (-i or -si) in the following cases:



1. Ownership is known, even if the Possessor is not explicitly specified:


Shahardan tashqarida Sirdaryo oqadi. Daryosi sayozlashdi.


The Syrdarya River flows outside the city. The river became shallower.



2. It is said about a certain subject, the uniqueness of which is emphasized by the definition. In this case, -i (-si) serves as a definite article:


Bu Kickik Halqa yoli.


This is the Little Ring Road.




About haq, haqda, haqida



haq = truth,

haqda, haqida = about.


Bu kitob o'tmish olimlari haqida. - This book is about the scientists of the past.




Nima haqda yozmoqchisiz? - What do you want to write about?




Present-Future Tense. Personal Endings of Predicates




The simplest and most frequently used grammatical tense in the Uzbek language is Present-Future.


It is so called because the form of verbs (or other parts of speech as a predicate) does not change depending on when an event occurs, in the present or in the future. Time is determined by the context or adverb of time.


For the case of the present tense, this is an analogue of the English Present Simple. By the way, there is also an analogue of Present Continuous in the Uzbek language, but we will talk about this later.






1. Men talabaman. Universitetda tarix fanini o'rganaman. Kechqurun kitob o'qiyman.


I am a student. I study history at university. I read books in the evenings. (Present)



2. Ertaga ishlamaymiz. Biz daryoga boramiz.


We will not work tomorrow. We will go to the river. (Future)



Sentences in the Present-Future are formed using the affixes "a" or "y" and "personal endings".


The personal ending is added to the verb or other part of speech used as a predicate. Since the predicate in the Uzbek language is almost always put at the end of a sentence, a significant part of sentences end in personal endings. This fact gives the originality of Turkic poetry.




Personal Endings:



1st person, singular: man; plural: miz


2nd person, singular: san; plural: siz


3rd person, verb, singular: di; plural: dilar


3rd person, other parts of speech, singular: no ending; plural: lar




Examples (predicate is a verb):



bilmoq to know


Men bilaman I know, I will know


Sen bilasan You know, You will know


U biladi He (she) knows, He (she) will know


Biz bilamiz We know, We will know


Siz bilasiz You know, You will know


Ular biladilar They know, They will know



ishlamoq to work


Men ishlayman I work, I will work


Sen ishlaysan You work, You will work


U ishlaydi He (she) works, He (she) will work


Biz ishlaymiz We work, We will work


Siz ishlaysiz You work, You will work


Ular ishlaydilar They work, They will work




Examples (predicate is another part of speech):



Siz chiroylisiz You are beautiful


Ular kichik They are small


Ular bolalar They are children


Biz uydamiz We are at home


Men och emasman I'm not hungry (When we use "emas" = "not", the personal ending is added to the word "emas"!)




If a personal ending is used, the pronoun is often omitted:



Dushanba kunlari ishlayman I work on Mondays


Chiroylisiz You are beautiful


Uydamiz We are at home


Och emasman I'm not hungry





The interrogative form of verbs in the present-future is formed using the affix -mi, which is added to the end of the word:



Hamma narsani tushunasizmi? Ha, tushunaman. Do you understand everything? Yes I understand.


Ertaga ishlaysizmi? Ha, ishlayman. Will you work tomorrow? Yes, I will work.




The negative form of verbs in the present-future is formed by adding the affix -ma, which is inserted after the root. Since "ma" ends with a vowel, the affix "y" follows.


Hamma narsani tushunasizmi? Yo'q tushunmayman. Do you understand everything? No, I don't understand.


Ertaga ishlaysizmi? Yo'q, ishlamayman. Will you work tomorrow? No, I will not work.




Time. Time of day. Frequently used adverbs of time



vaqt time


payt moment of time



tong dawn


erta morning


kun day


kech evening


tun - night



tongda at dawn


ertalab - in the morning


kunduzi - in the afternoon


kechqurun - in the evening


tunda, kechasi - at night



hozir, endi now


bugun today


kecha yesterday


ertaga tomorrow







yosh age; young



Siz necha yoshdasiz? - How old are you?



Men yigirma yoshdaman. - I'm twenty years old.




Men yigirmadaman. - I'm twenty.




Yigirmadaman. - I'm twenty.



Here "da" is the affix of the locative case; "man" personal ending.



Similarly, we can ask and answer:



Men necha yoshdaman? - How old am I?


Siz qirq yoshdasiz. - You are fourty years old.



U necha yoshda? - How old is he (she)?


U ellik bir yoshda. - He (she) is fifty-one years old. (there is no personal ending here, because "yosh" is not a verb)



Akang necha yoshda? - How old is your brother?


Akam o'ttiz uchda. - My brother is thirty-three.




Verbs to memorize:



bor - there is/are, existing, have

Menda chelak bor - I have a bucket


bo'lmoq - to be, to take place, happen


Siz kim bo'lasiz? - Who are you?

Sog' bo'ling! - Be healthy!

Bor bo'ling! - I wish you to live!


bilmoq - to know

bilim - knowledge

tushunmoq - to understand


yashamoq - to live (anywhere)

qilmoq - to do


qaramoq - to look

ko'rmoq - to see


eshitmoq - to hear, to listen

tinglamoq - to listen

quloq solmoq - to listen

quloq bermoq - to listen


solmoq - to put


o'qimoq - to read; study (somewhere)

yozmoq - to write


gapirmoq - to speak, to talk

gaplashmoq - to speak, to talk, to negotiate

aytmoq - to say, to speak, to tell; to call, to invite

demoq - to tell (the words) (a case of direct speech, retelling)

so'zlamoq - to talk, to tell, to narrate

(so'z - word)

so'ylamoq - to talk, to tell, to narrate


yurmoq - to go, to move

bormoq - to go (anywhere); to reach

kelmoq - to come

qolmoq - to stay (anywhere)

ketmoq - to go out

qochmoq - to run away

qaytmoq - to return

kechmoq - to overpass, to go through something; to forgive

otmoq - to pass, to step over

kirmoq - to enter

chiqmoq - to go outside, to leave


yordamlashmoq, yordam bermoq - to help

ko'maklashmoq - to provide support, to help, to help each other



Compound verbs:


chiqib qoldi appeared ("leaving, got up")


qochib ketdi disappeared ("left running away")


If we don't use "a" ("y"), but use a personal ending, this is the Past tense (qoldi, ketdi).





boshlamoq - to begin

bitirmoq - to finish

tugatmoq - to finish


turmoq - to stand, to stand up

o'tirmoq - to sit, to sit down


ochmoq - to open

yopmoq - to close


olmoq - to take

bermoq - to give




Examples sentences:



Bu yerga keling! - Come here!


Bu yerga qarang! - Look here!


Eshiting! Tinglang! Quloq soling! Quloq bering! - Listen!


Qaytaring! - Return!


Qaytaring! Takrorlang! - Repeat!


Javob bering! - Answer!


Ichkariga kiring! - Come on in!


Kitob o'qing! - Read a book!


Kitobni o'qing! - Read the book!


Derazani oching! - Open the window!


Derazani ochmang! - Don't open the window!


Buni qilma! - Don't do it!


Gapirmang! Gaplashmang! - Do not speak!


Menga yordam bering! - Help me!



Bu dori menga yordamlashadi. - This medicine helps me.


Ular bir-birlariga ko'maklashadi. - They help each other.


Ertaga u unga bir og'iz so'z aytmaydi. - Tomorrow he won't say a word to her.





Earlier it was said that the possessive case affix "-ning" and the possessive affix "-i (-si)" can be omitted. Put crudely, they are used in the same case when in English we use the definite article "the", and are not used in the indefinite case.


Approximately the same can be said about the accusative affix "-ni".


That is, the accusative case, like the possessive, can be "formed" and "unformed".



Example of an unformed accusative case:



Tez orada uy quramiz. - We will build a house soon.


Here the word "uy" has no affix for the same reason that in English we use the indefinite article.



The cases of the formed accusative need to be described in more detail.



1. With proper names:


Rashidni toping - Find Rashid.


2. With personal, interrogative or reflexive pronouns:


U meni oz uyiga taklif qildi. He invited me to his house.


Siz kimni sorayapsiz? Who are you asking?


Anna ozini hech kimga tanishtirmadi. Anna did not introduce herself to anyone.


3. With nominalized adjectives:


Qizilni oling. - Take the red.


U bilganini sozlab bersin. Let him tell what he knows. (bilganini = bil + gan + ini, "gan" turns a verb into a past participle)


Birinchisini oling, men ikkinchisini olaman. Get the first one, I'll get the second one.


4. With words defined by the form of the possessive case:


Uning otasini uchrashdim. I met his father.


5. With words formed using the possessive case affix "-ning":


Men bugun kelganingni eshitdim. I heard you came today.


6. With participles:


Kelganini kordim. I saw him come.


7. With verbal nouns:


Akam oqishni bitirdi. My brother graduated. (oqishni: oqimoq to read; to study; -ish is an affix forming a verbal noun)


8. If a word in the accusative case is separated from the predicate by other members of the sentence:


Vazifani soat beshda tugatdik. We finished the task at five o'clock.


9. When using some verbs of motion, we consider that we are in the accusative case and also use "-ni":


Shaharni kezmoq. Walking around the city.


In this block materials of the textbook are used:

G.H.Bakieva et al., "Uzbek language for the CIS countries".





The logic of changing adverbs of time according to cases is best demonstrated by examples with the most commonly used adverbs.


We already know the words:


kun - day

tun night

tong - dawn

erta - morning

kech - evening

kecha yesterday; night

ertaga - tomorrow


ertaga ertalab tomorrow morning

kecha ertalab yesterday morning

ertaga kechqurun tomorrow evening

ertalab in the morning, kechqurun in the evening

bugun kechqurun tonight



avval before, first

Avval ishni tugatamiz We'll finish the job first

Sendan avval ko'rganman I've seen it before you


oldin before, ago

Ikki yil oldin Two years ago

Ovqatdan oldin Before meals

Sizdan sal oldin Just before you

oldinda ahead

oldinda boradi goes ahead

oldindan in advance

oldinga forward


ilgari ago, before; forward

Buyuk alloma ming yil(dan) ilgari yashagan edi The great thinker lived 1000 years ago

U ilgari ketadi He goes ahead

ilgaridan in advance, from the beginning


keyin after

U mendan keyin kirdi He came in after me

keyinda behind

U keyinda qoladi - He falls behind

keyindan after


so'ng after (the end of something), later

U bir yildan so'ng o'qishni bitiradi He graduates in a year

ertadan so'ng day after tomorrow



osha that

osha kecha that evening


oshanda at that time, then

Oshanda mening shaxsiy uyim bor edi. I had my own house then.


oshandan buyon since

buyon = bu+yon; yon side, sidepiece


Qachondan beri? Since when?

qachon when, as soon as


paytgacha until then (payt - moment of time)



yonida beside (by place or time)

(yon side, sidepiece)

yoniga nearby

yonidan past (something)


deraza yonida - next to the window

Aziz oʻchoq yonida oʻtiradi. Aziz sits by the fire.

yoniga kelmoq to approach

U yonidan o'tib ketdi. He walked past me.


yaqinda recently; soon

(yaqin close (object, person))

yaqindan close (to something or someone); recently


Yaqinda daryoga bordik. - We went to the river recently.

Biz yaqindan tanishmiz. - We are intimately familiar.



allaqachon a long time ago

allaqachon kelgan already arrived





Ranglar Colors



rang color, tone, tinge

tus hue, shade, color; appearance, manner


Qizil rang sizda qanday hislarni uyg'otadi? How does red make you feel?

Tarkibidagi gemoglobin qonga qizil tus beradi. Hemoglobin, which is part of the blood, gives it a red color.



rangli colored

rangli bo'yoqlar colored paints

tusli colored

qora tusli ot black horse


bo'yoq paint, color

gul flower

guldasta bunch of flowers

chechak flower



Asosiy ranglar Primary colors:


oq white

qora black

qizil red

kok blue

yashil green

sariq yellow



Bu qaysi rang? What is color?

Bu qizil rang. This is red.


Gulning rangi qanday? OR Gul qanday rangda? What color is the flower?

Gulning rangi qizil. OR Gul qizil rangda. The flower is red.






Uzbeks often say "kok" instead of the word "yashil". For example: kok choy (green tea), kok o't (green grass). But: Yashil bo'yoq (Green paint).






Uzbek tongue twister:


Oq choynakka oq qopqoq, kok choynakka kok qopqoq.

White lid on white teapot, blue lid on blue teapot.



rasm drawing, picture

surat picture, drawing

asar, san'at asari work of art

rassom artist

rasm chizmoq to paint





Boglovchilar - Conjunctions



va and

qalam va qog'oz - pencil and paper


ham ham both, also, as well as (after vowels sounds like "yam")

Bozorda ota ham, onasi ham savdo qiladi. - Both father and mother trade in the market.


hamda as well as

Seshanba, chorshanba hamda payshanba kunlari bandman. - I am busy on Tuesday, Wednesday and also Thursday.



yo (yoxud, yoki) or

qora yoki oq black or white

Yo men boray, yo sen kel. Either I go or you come


xoh xoh either

xoh bugun, xoh ertaga - either today or tomorrow

xoh-noxoh whether wanting to or not

no" is a prefix borrowed from Farsi (Persian), which has the meaning of negation



esa but, as for

O'qituvchining esa hech narsadan xabari yo'q edi. - As for the teacher, he didn't know anything.


bolsa but, as for

Men hamma narsani qildim, u bo'lsa hali buni qilmagan.- I've done everything, but he hasn't done it yet.


bolmasa otherwise, in that case, then

Mayli bo'lmasa, ertaga uchrashamiz. - Okay, then we'll see you tomorrow.



lekin but; however

ammo but, though, however

biroq except, yet, however


U o'qiy oladi, lekin sekin. He can read, but slowly.

Ammo, ishning muvaffaqiyati aniq emas. However, the success of the work is not certain.

Suqrot mening do'stim, biroq haqiqat muhimroqdir. Socrates is my friend, but the truth is dearer to me.





Compound words to memorize - 2:



bormoq - to go

borib-borib - over time, gradually, little by little; in the end.


bo'lmoq - to be, to take place, happen

bo'lib-bo'lib - piece y piece, in parts.


kelmoq - to come

kelib-kelib - subsequently; finally, in the end;


sakramoq - to jump

sakrab-sakrab - ride with difficulty


yov - enemy

yov-yov - enemy attack; fighting, battle


gajak - curl, lock, ringlet (on forehead); a silver or gold ornament resembling a

ringlet and worn by women on the forehead; curled

gajak-gajak - all curly, full of curls


katak - coop, pen; square; cell, chamber; nostril; checkered

katak-katak - made up of many chambers, squares


lo'ppak - mature, full, ripe (usu. cotton)

lo'ppak-lo'ppak - lush, fluffy


teshik - hole, opening

teshik-teshik OR ilma-teshik - full of holes, riddled with holes


chakak - lower jaw

chakak-chakak - emaciated, thin, haggard, hollow-cheeked





Present Continuous Tense




In the Uzbek language, there is a tense similar to the English Present Continuous. It expresses a state, event or action which is taking place at the same time it is being reported.

Use the affix yap and personal ending present tense.

In the case of the 3rd person, instead of the personal ending "di", you need to use "ti". This is due to the voiceless ending of the affix "yap".


So, personal endings:


1st person, singular: man; plural: miz

2nd person, singular: san; plural: siz

3rd person, verb, singular: ti; plural: ti(lar)


If we are in the case of 3rd person pl. and we discard -lar, it turns out a less respectful connotation.

As in the case of the Present-Future tense, the personal pronoun is usually omitted unless deliberately emphasizing who is doing the action. A leading pronoun is redundant - its meaning is already present in the personal suffix at the end of the verb.





(uxlamoq to sleep)

Hozir uxlayapman Im sleeping now

Hozir uxlayapsan You are sleeping now

Hozir uxlayapti He is sleeping now

Hozir uxlayapmiz We are sleeping now

Hozir uxlayapsiz You are sleeping now

Hozir ular uxlayaptilar They are sleeping now


Singlim maktabga boradi. Bugun u she'r yodlayapti. My sister goes to school. Today he is memorizing a poem.

Vazifani bajaryapsizmi? Are you completing a task?

Nega o'ynamayapsiz? Why aren't you playing? (oynamoq to play)

Men hozir uy quryapman. I am building a house now.



There are two more ways to construct the Uzbek Present Continuous:


1. verb + moq + da + personal ending

2. verb + ("a" or "y") + yotir + personal ending (This form is usually used in the literature)


In both cases, in the case of a third person, the personal ending is not used!




Ukam Navoiyning she'rlarini yodlamoqda. My brother is memorizing Navoi's poems.

Navoiyning she'rlarini yodlamoqdaman. I am memorizing Navoi's poems.


Qayerdan kelayotirsiz? Where are you coming from? (kelmoq to come)

Buxorodan kelayotirman. I am coming from Bukhara.

Hozir ham balki bu haqda oylayotir. Maybe even now he is thinking about it.





Word order in sentence




1. We put the subject at the beginning of the sentence, and only attributives or adjunct of place and time can precede it.


2. The predicate is placed exclusively at the end of the sentence.


3. The dependent members of the sentence come before the principal one.





Yovvoyi hayvonlari Wild animals:



Tulki Fox


Ayiq Bear


Kiyik Deer


Quyon Hare, Rabbit


Bo'ri Wolf


Olmaxon Squirrel


Fil Elephant


Sher Lion


Yo'lbars Tiger


Maymun Monkey




Uy hayvonlari Domestic animals:



Ot Horse


Toychoq olt (young horse)


Eshak Donkey


Xo'tik Colt (young donkey)


Sigir Cow


Buzoq Calf


Tuya Camel


Bo'taloq Young camel


Echki Goat


Uloqcha Goatling


Qo'y Sheep


Qo'zichoq Lamb


Cho'chqa, Tongiz Pig


Qobon Boar


It Dog


Kuchukcha Puppy


Pishak Cat


Pishakcha Kitten


G'oz Goose


G'oz bolasi Gosling


Tovuq Hen


Jo'ja Chicken


O'rdak Duck


O'rdakcha Duckling





Definite Past Tense. Aniq o'tgan zamon fe'li




The definite past expresses an event or action completed in the past, and the speaker was an eyewitness to this action or its participant.

The definite past tense is formed by adding to the verb stem the affix -di, plus the possessive type of personal endings.


Personal endings for Definite Past:


1st person, singular: m; plural: k

2nd person, singular: ng; plural: ngiz

3rd person, singular: no ending; plural: lar



Men kirdim I entered

Biz kirdik We entered

Sen kirding You entered

Siz kirdingiz You entered

U kirdi He (she) entered

Ular kirdilar They entered





Kecha biz qishloqqa qaytdik. Yesterday we returned to the village.

Bugun maktabda darslar bo'ldi. There were classes at school today.


- Seshanba siz nima qildingiz? What did you do on Tuesday?.

- Ishladim. I worked.


- Bugun ertalab nima qildingiz? What did you do this morning?

- Kitob oqidim. I read a book.


- Turdingmi? Did you get up? Tur+di+ng+mi

- Yo'q, men o'tiraman. No, I'm sitting.



The negative form of the definite past tense is formed by adding the negative affix -ma to the verb base, followed by the affix -di and then personal ending:


Ular hli shahardan qaytmadilar. They have not yet returned from the city. qayt+ma+di+lar





bolmoq to be; to take place, happen; to be finished; to be suitable; to exist, be present; to be found; to become



Bugun yigirma daraja sovuq bo'ladi. It will be twenty degrees cold today.

Siz kelajakda kim bolasiz? Who will you be in the future?

Shifokor bolaman. I will be a doctor.

Sog boling! Be healthy!

Yol bolsin! Have a safe trip!

Nima bo'ldi? Whats happened?


The use of bo'lmoq in the past tense indicates that a change of state has occurred, which may or may not be still relevant at present time:


Bugun kichli shamol bo'ldi. It was a little windy today.


Soat necha boldi? What time is it?

Soat tort boldi. It's four o'clock.





emoq to be.

This verb form is obsolete; usually this verb is used in the past tense (edi).


bor there is/are, existing, present.

This modal verb has no infinitive.




Kecha sovuq edi. It was cold yesterday.

Qayerda edi? Where was it?

Otgan kuni ham ish kop edi. There was a lot of work the other day.

O'tgan yili shaxarda edik. We were in town last year.


It is important:


Menda eshak bor. I have a donkey.

Menda eshak yo'q. I havent a donkey.

Menda eshak bor edi. I had a donkey.

Menda eshak yo'q edi. I hadn't a donkey.


Another way:


Mening akam bor. I have a brother.

Singlim yo'q. I don't have a sister.





Words to memorize:



dunyo world, universe

olam world, universe, cosmos


sharq east

g'arb west

shimol north

janub south


bahor spring

yoz summer

kuz autumn

qish winter


quyosh sun

osmon sky


iqlim climate

yomgir rain

qor snow

shamol wind

bulut cloud

dol hail

ayoz frost


tog mountain

gor cave


dengiz sea

kol lake

daryo river





Verbs to memorize:



o'rgan to study

yodlamoq to memorize; to recall

unutmoq to forget

o'ylamoq to think (of, about), to consider


bitirmoq to finish, to end; to complete; to liquidate, to destroy

tugatmoq synonym for " bitirmoq"


o'ynamoq to play; to dance; to play with

kuylamoq to sing


ichmoq to drink

ovqatlanmoq to eat


ushlamoq to hold

tashlamoq to throw


qurmoq to build

ekmoq to sow, to plant


tugilmoq to be born

uygonmoq to wake up


korsatmoq to show

aylanmoq to spin, to turn; to take a walk


shugullanmoq to be busy with something





The nominative case is distinguished by the absence of a case affix:


Qush shimolga uchmoqda. The bird is flying north.


We have considered the formation of genitive (possessive) and accusative cases above.


Now let's study the locative, ablative and dative cases.





Locative indicates the object or person where the action took place. Often by action is meant possession, "I (you, he, ...) have (has) ...". It can also indicate the time of the action; indicate the location of a person or object.


Nouns and other parts of speech in this case answer questions:


Kimda? (On whom? Who has it?)

Nimada? (On what? What has it?)

Qayerda? (Where?)

Qachon? (When?)


The locative is formed using the affix "da".





Tog'larda sovuq shamollar esadi.

(Cold winds blow in the mountains.)


Menda Ikki oglim bor.

(I have two sons.)


Chelakda suv bor.

(There is water in the bucket.)


Hafta oxirida biz teatrga boramiz.

(At the end of the week we go to the theater.)


Otam Toshkentda yashaydi.

(My father lives in Tashkent.)





Words in the Ablative case are formed using the affix -dan and indicate:


1. the beginning of the action:


Ish seshanbadan boshlanadi. The work starts on Tuesday.


2. place of origin:


Kecha akam qishloqdan keldi. My brother came from the village yesterday.


3. the material from which the object is made:


Bu uy toshdan qurilgan. This house is built of stone.


4. the object with which we compare something:


U mendan o'n yosh katta. He is ten years older than me.



The words in the Ablative case answer the questions:


Kimdan? (From whom?)


Nimadan? (From what?)


Qayerdan? (From where?)


Qachondan? (Since when?)





Words in the Dative case indicate the object or person to whom the action is directed, as well as the place or time of the end of the action.


Words in the Dative case are formed using the affix -ga. If a word ends in k or g, the affix -ka is applied; if it ends in q or g, -qa is applied.



The words in the Dative case answer the questions:


Kimga? (For whom?)


Nimaga? (For what?)


Qayerga? (Where? In what direction?)





Men daftarni osha yigitga berdim. I gave the notebook to that guy.


Darslarga vaqtida tayyorlanamiz. We will get ready for the lessons on time.


U ertaga daryoga keladi. He will come to the river tomorrow.





Case forms of the personal pronouns






One letter n is written when the pronouns men and sen are in the genitive and accusative cases; the letter n is added to the pronoun u in the dative, locative and ablative cases before the affixes, for example:


Unga oq qog'oz bering. Give him a white paper.

Unda non bor. He has bread.

Undan hamma narsani oling. Get everything from him.





Words to memorize:



maktab school

o'qituvchi teacher

o'quvchi - student, pupil

talaba student


kasb profession

hunar - profession, craft


ishchi worker

ish work

ishlamoq - to work


sotuvchi salesman

haydovchi driver

quruvchi builder

shifokor doctor

jarroh - surgeon

murabbiy coach

muhandis engineer

harbiy soldier

dehqon farmer

cho'pon shepherd

rassom artist

siyosatchi politician


tilshunos linguist

til - tongue, language

Ingliz tili - English language


ustoz - master, mentor

hamkasb colleague






Uning atasi - shifokor. - His father is a doctor.


Mening yangi kasbim quruvchi. - My new profession is a builder.


Universitetni bitirib, tilshunos bolaman. - I will graduate from university and become a linguist.


Muhandislar shanba kuni ishlamaydi. - Engineers do not work on Saturdays.


Mening hamkasbim sizning tilingizda gapirmaydi. - My colleague does not speak your language.


Hozir talabalar kitob oqimoqda. - Now students are reading books.










There are no prepositions in the Uzbek language, their role is played by postpositions.

At the same time, there are few "proper postpositions", often their functions are performed by other parts of speech, as well as case forms.



bir uydan ikkinchisiga from one house to another


However, some postpositions are very popular:


bilan (together) with, and; by, from; with that

uchun for; in order to; because

kabi such as, like

orqali through, via, from

qadar like, as; as much as, as many as; nearly, about; up to, until

uzra on, over, all over, throughout






Men siz bilan ishlayman. I will work with you.

Men u bilan faxrlanaman. I am proud of him.

Shu bilan majlis tamom boldi. The meeting ended with that.


Men bolalar uchun kitob yozyapman. I am writing a book for children.

shuning uchun in order to


U kattalar kabi harakat qiladi. He acts like an adult.


Men eshik orqali kirilgan. I entered through the door.


Qishga qadar bu sabzavotni saqlab bo'lmaydi. This vegetable cannot be stored until winter.


Shahar uzra yog'ilardi qor. It was snowing over the city.





Words to memorize:




chelak bucket

savat basket

idish dish

piyola bowl

qoshiq spoon

choynak teapot

dasturxon tablecloth (spread over a table or upon the floor); "table" (of food)

quti box

o'roq sickle

hamyon purse

tanga coin

koptok ball

chang'i ski

stol table

stul chair

javon cupboard; wardrobe; shelf.

karavot bed

arqon rope

qop sack


kiyim clothes ,clothing

ko'ylak shirt

yopinchiq coverlet, cape, poncho

shim trousers

telpak fur hat

etik high boot


qidirmoq to look for, to search for

topmoq to find







Qaysi ko'ylakni oldingiz, oq yoki ko'k? Which shirt did you get, white or blue?


Sizga qora shim yoqadimi? Do you like black pants? (yoqmoq - to please, to be agreeable to)


Ana shu koptok men uchun! This ball is for me!


O'z qo'llaringiz bilan javon yasang. Make a shelf with your own hands.


Dasturxonimizda choynak bor. There is a teapot on our table.


Olmalarni qutiga soldi. He put the apples in the box.


Uyimizda uchta karavot yo'q edi. We didn't have three beds in our house.

Men quyonimni qidiryapman. I'm looking for my rabbit.


Quyonimni topdim. I found my rabbit.





Affix -niki



It is used to reflect connection with or belonging to.

The affix niki is attached to the end of the word or personal pronoun.


bu mening qalamim this is my pencil

bu qalam meniki this pencil is mine

OR: bu meniki this is mine


eshikning ruchkasi door handle

ruchka eshikniki handle of the door

OR: bu eshikniki it's of the door


Personal pronouns with the -niki affix answer the question "Kimniki?" (Whose?).


meniki mine

bizniki ours

seniki yours

sizniki yours

uniki his/hers/its

ularniki theirs







Bu qalam kimniki? Bu qalam meniki.

Whose pencil is this? - This pencil is mine.


Xona kimniki? Anvarniki.

Whose room is it? - Anwar's.


- Olma siznikimi?

- Ha, meniki.

- Yoq, meniki emas.

- Is the apple yours?

- Yes, mine.

- No, not mine.


- Sening ismim kim?

- Ismim Nosir.

- Meniki, Asad.

- What is your name?

- My name is Nasir.

- Mine, Asad.


- Ular kimniki?

- Ular otaniki, meniki emas.

- Whose are they?

- They are father's, not mine.


- Sizning ismingiz nima?

- Karim, sizniki-chi?

- Meniki ham.

- What is your name?

- Karim, what about you?

- Mine too.


meniki emassan - you are not mine


Bu yilgi mevalar bizniki boladi. This year's fruits will be ours.


Mevalarning hammasi uniki boladi! All the fruits will be his!





meni, seni,




When we encounter a personal pronoun with -ni at the end, we realize that it is most likely a pronoun in the accusative case.


But there is a possibility that this is a simplified form of the possessive case, that is, instead of mening it is said (or even written) meni.






bu meni ishim emas = bu mening ishim emas this is not my job


meni sevimli ayolim = mening sevimli ayolim my beloved woman




men seni sevaman I love you (accusative)









yemoq to eat

yeb bolmaydigan OR yesa bolmaydigan uneatable


ovqat food

ovqatlanmoq, ovqat yemoq to eat, to feed, to have a meal

Tom ovqat yedi, pivo ichdi va keyin uxlab qoldi. Tom ate, drank beer and then went to sleep.


ichmoq to drink

pishirmoq to cook

qaynatmoq to boil, to cook

ovqat qilmoq, ovqat tayorlamoq to cook

tayorlamoq o prepare


nonushta, nahorlik breakfast

tushlik lunch, dinner

kechki ovqat supper ("evening meal")

nonushta qilmoq, nahorlik qilmoq to have breakfast

tushlik qilmoq to have dinner


choy tea

non bread

shirmon non, shirmon rich bread

shorva soup

xorda rice soup

taom dish, meal solution


idish dish, vessel, container

idish-tovoq tableware, crockery

qoshiq spoon

vilka fork


tuz salt

shakar, qand sugar

shirin sweet, tasty

mazali tasty, pleasant


pazanda cookery specialist

oshxona dining room, kitchen

chuchvaraxona dumpling bar

(chuchvara dumplings, xona room)


mehmon guest

mezbon host, master of the house


Dasturxonga marhamat! Welcome to the table!





demoq to tell, to say, to pronounce




Usually this verb is used when transmitting direct speech or when retelling.




Menga piolani bering, dedi.

"Give me a cup," he said.


Kecha sizda ot yo'q dedingiz.

You said yesterday that you don't have a horse.


Salom de. OR Salom deng. Share a hello.

Nima deysiz? What are you talking about?

Sizda yigirma tanga bor, deysizmi? You say you have twenty coins?



Sometimes, in the imperative-subjunctive mood, the affix -gin is added to the verb base instead of -ing. The result is a sentence with a hint of a wish.


For example:


ha degin say yes

ishlagin work (would you like to work?)

yozgin write (similarly)

o'qigin learn (similarly)


The use of gin as an alternative to the main imperative affix for 2nd-person is also found in other Turkic languages, for example, in Kumyk it will be "".





Words to memorize:



olmoq to take


-a + olmoq (adverbial participle + verb) - to be able (to do something)



tushuna olmayman I cant understand

qaza olmayman I can't dig




qazishim mumkin I can dig that is, in the affirmative sentence, the word mumkin is more often used

(qazimoq, qazmoq - to dig, qazish - verbal noun "digging")



eplamoq - to cope, to manage to

Ular buni epladi. They did it.


istamoq, xohlamoq, tilamoq to want, to wish





Qarindoshlik atamalari



oila family

xonadon family, household; house, dynasty

qarindosh relative


erkak man

ayol woman, wife

xotin wife, woman

rafiqa wife

kuyov, turmush ortoq husband

juvon young married woman


bola child

qiz daughter, girl

ogil son, boy

nevara, nabira grandchild

evara great-grandchild

chevara great-great-grandchild


aka older brother

uka, ini younger brother

opa older sister

singil younger sister

aka-uka brothers

opa-singil sisters


ota, dada father

ona, oyi, aya, opa mother

buva grandfather

buvi grandmother


qaynota father in law

qaynona mother in law

toga maternal uncle

amaki paternal uncle

xola maternal aunt

amma paternal aunt

jiyan nephew, niece




How to exchange greetings



Words of greeting



Assalomu alaykum! Hello! (Peace be with you!)

Va alaykum assalom! Hello! (And the same to you!)


Yaxshimisiz? Are you okay?

Salomatmisiz? How are you?

Ishlaringiz qanday? How are you doing?

Kayfiyatlaringiz yaxshimi? How are you doing? (Are you in a good mood?)

Qalaysan? How are you? (Qalay = Qanday)


Xayrli tong! Good morning!

Xayrli kun! Good day!

Xayrli kech! Good evening!

Xayrli tun! Good night!


Responses to greetings


Hammasi joyida! I'm alright!

Xudoga shukur! Thank God!


Words of farewell



Xayr! Bye!

Sog boling! Be healthy!

Sogbol! Be healthy!

Korishguncha! See you there!

Uchrashguncha! Goodbye!

Yaxshi qoling! Best wishes staying!

Xudo yor bolsin! May God be with you!

Oq yol! Have a safe trip!


Related words


salomat, sog healthy

salomatlik, soglik health

kayfiyat mood, spirits, well-being


joy place, location

joyida in place, in order

joylashmoq to settle, to find a place, to become situated

turar joy housing, place of residence


hamma, barcha all, every

hamma narsa all things, all items

narsa thing, item


Xudo God


uchrashmoq to meet

uchrashuv meeting




Types of participles in Uzbek



Participles in the Uzbek language are of the following types:



1. Past participle formed with the affix -gan (phonetic variants -kan, -qan):


o'qigan (read): Bu kitobni o'qigan odam. This is the man who read the book.

yozgan (wrote): Bu kitobni yozigan odam. This is the man who wrote the book.

tug'ilgan kuni Birthday,

o'tgan yili last year.


Using this form, an Indefinite Past tense is formed, which corresponds to the English Present Perfect.



2. Present-future participle. It is formed from adverbial participles with the affix - (-) using the affix -digan:


ishlaydigan (working or the one that will work), yozadigan (writing or the one that will write).



3. Focal present participle. It is formed from adverbial participles with the affix - (-) using the affix -yotgan (after -a) or -otgan (after -y):


kelayotgan (coming), ishlayotgan (working).



4. Progressive past participle. It is formed with the affixes -uvchi, -ovchi:


2019 yil 1 yanvardan barcha ishlovchi pensionerlarga pensiyani to'liq miqdorda to'lash tartibi joriy etildi. From January 1, 2019, the procedure for paying pensions in full to all working pensioners was introduced.



5. A very rarely used type of the future participle with the affixes -ar (-r) (affirmative form) and -mas (negative form):

kelar / kelmas the one who will come / the one who will not come;


ko'chmas mulk savdo immovables sales, property for sale. (ko'chmoq to move somewhere else)


More often this type of participle is used to form a Future Presumptive tense:

n ertaga kutubxonaga borarman. I'll possibly go to the library tomorrow.



Indefinite Past tense



This tense corresponds to the English tenses Present Perfect or Past Simple.


To form this tense, you need to attach the affix -gan and the personal ending of group I. By the personal endings of group I, we mean those that are used in the Present-Future tense, and not in the Definite Past.



Universitetni qachon tugatgansiz? - When did you graduate from university?

U bu kitobni o'qimagan. OR U bu kitobni o'qigan emas. - He has not read this book.

Men 1980 yilda tug'ilganman. - I was born in 1980.

Siz Kaspiy dengizi sohilida bo'lganmisiz? - Have you ever been to the shores of the Caspian Sea?







old front

orqa back

yon side, flank

o'rta middle

tomon side, direction, area

ust top, top side

ost bottom, bottom side

past bottom; low


These words have partially lost the meaning of objectivity and moved into the category of postpositions. Unlike proper postpositions, postpositions-names take possessive and case affixes:


deraza yonida near the window

daryo oldida by the river

uy orqasida behind the house

u tomonga in that direction

do'kon yonidan o'ddik we passed by the store







The use of ekan - to be seemingly, apparently. When the information most often presented as new, just discovered fact sometimes unexpected for the speaker himself. The temporal distinction between a past and a present state of affairs is not marked grammatically. The tense must be decided from the context.


This word can be considered as a participle formed from the verb emoq, e+kan (here kan = gan);

thus, the verb emoq is used in practice in two forms: in Definite Past (edi, edim, edik, eding, ) and in the form ekan.


shunday ekan so, in that case


bor ekan there is, as long as there is

Mehr yurakda bor ekan, ... = As long as there is love in the heart, ...






Bo'yoq juda yorqin ekan The paint is really bright


men hayotda bor ekanman as long as I am alive


Bolangizni boshida otasi bor ekan, siz bor ekansiz As long as your child has a father, you exist


Undan mening xabari bor ekan I have a message from him


Bizda bunday planlar yo'q ekan We have no such plans


Menda juda ko'p yaxshi ko'ylaklar bor edi I had a lot of good shirts


Mening shaxsiy uyim bor edi I had my own house


Mening shaxsiy uyim yo'q edi I didn't have my own house




The poem "Oʼsha men edim"



Author Xurshid Abdurashid

Singer Shuhrat Daryo




Analysis of the text of the poem:










Oʼsha men edim



Derazang yoniga qoʼndi kabutar

Ilkida oʼrogʼliq maktub bor edi.

Senga boqib turgan maʼyus koʼzlari,

Shu onda nedandir umidvor edi.

Sen esa pardani yopib qoʼyding jim,

Oʼsha men edim-ku, oʼsha men edim.



That was me...



A pigeon has landed on your window

He had a message.

Sad eyes were looking at you,

At that time, he was hoping for something.

And you quietly closed the curtain.

That was me, that was me.



qonmoq to get down (on something)

oʼrogʼliq maktub a folded message, a scroll

ilkida in the hands (poetic) (also the homonym ilk first, initial)

boqmoq to look at, ga boqmoq keep an eye on, to observe

shu onda at that moment (on = moment)

nedandir for something

esa - as for, however, whereas

yopib qoʼymoq to cover, to close (qoʼymoq to put, to place; to stop)

jim quiet, still



Koʼchaga chiqding sen bogʼ aylangani,

Daydi shamollarday xayoling tarqoq.

Bogʼ kezib yurarding shunda nogahon

Oyogʼing ostiga tushdi bir yaproq.

Oʼsha yaproq kabi sochilgandi kim?

Oʼsha men edim-ku, oʼsha men edim.




You went out for a walk in the garden,

Your mind is scattered like the wind.

You were walking in the garden, and suddenly

A leaf fell at your feet.

Who threw this leaf?

That was me, that was me.




aylanmoq to spin, to turn; to go or walk around, to take a walk

daydi wandering

shamol+lar+da+y like the wind

xayol thought(s), imagination, idea, fancy

tarqoq spread out, scattered

kezmoq to walk about, to stroll; kezib yurmoq inspect

shunda at the same time (an indication of an action, an event)

nogahon sudden (= nogohon = nogoh, see below)

oyoq leg, foot (oyogʼing your leg, your foot)

ost bottom side, bottom; ostiga down, under

tushmoq to fall, to descend

yaproq leaf

kabi such as, like

sochilmoq to scatter, sochilgan scattered



Bogʼda gullar terding avaylab asta

Nogoh qoʼllaringga sanchildi tikan.

Nozik qoʼling bilan sugʼurding uni

Deding Shunday gulda tikan bor ekan.

Senga talpingandi shu tikan, gulim,

Oʼsha men edim-ku, oʼsha men edim.




You were carefully picking flowers in the garden,

Suddenly a thorn pricked your hands.

You took it out with a gentle hand

And said: "There was a thorn in such a flower."

This thorn that reached you, oh my flower,

That was me, that was me.




termoq to gather, to pick up

avaylab taking great care, carefully

asta slowly, quietly; carefully

nogoh = no+goh sudden;

goh sometimes, at times; yomg'ir goh yog'adi, goh tinadi sometimes it rains, sometimes it stops;

goh-goh from time to time.

sanchilmoq to stick in

tikan thorn

nozik delicate; sensitive; graceful (noz tenderness)

sugʼurmoq to pull or draw out; to wrest

talpinmoq to reach



Soʼng qaytding uyingga oʼy surib sokin,

Deraza yoniga qoʼyding gullarni.

Tin olmoq dardida choʼkding toʼshakka

Va yigʼlab oʼqiding Oʼtkan kunlarni.

Kimnidir oʼylading, koʼzlari sim-sim,

Oʼsha men edim-ku, oʼsha men edim.



Then you went back to your house in a calm reverie,

You put flowers by the window.

With the thought of rest, you lay down in bed

And you read "Bygone Days" with tears.

You were thinking about someone, your eyes were twinkling,

That was me, that was me.



o'ylamoq to think, o'y thought

surmoq to push, to move; oʼy surib thinking about something

sokin quiet, peaceful, still

qoʼymoq to put, to place

tin olmoq to relax, to take a breath; tin breath; tinim peace, rest

dard malady, ailment; concern, worry

cho'kmoq to get down, to sit down, to lie down

toʼshak mattress, bed

yigʼlamoq to cry, to weep

Oʼtkan kunlar - Bygone Days - novel by Abdulla Qodiriy

sim-sim throbbing, twinkling




Recitation of the verse "O'sha men edim"


(taken from here)











Last updated:     18.08.2023,   15:00.




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