***  O'ZBEK  TILI   *   UZBEK  LANGUAGE  ***

 

 

 

 

 

This is the copy of my Telegram-channel for learning the Uzbek language.

 

Uzbek, like other Turkic languages, is interesting for its logic, consistency. This is its difference from modern Germanic languages, those formed by multiple mixing of Slavic and Germanic languages and multiple compromises between them. The Turkic languages have not changed much over the centuries, keeping the pure logic of constructing words and sentences...

 

We will use the materials of the telegram-channel Uzbek language translated from Russian.

 

 

 

The Uzbek language has 2 alphabets. One is based on the Latin alphabet, the other is based on the Cyrillic alphabet. The Latin based alphabet consists of 26 letters, three digraphs sh, ch and ng, and an apostrophe. The Cyrillic based alphabet consists of 35 letters.

 

 

Cyrillic:

 

Қ қ Ғ ғ Ҳ ҳ

 

Latin:

 

B b D d F f G g H h I i

J j K k L l m N n P p Q q

R r S s t U u V v X x Y y Z z

Oʻ oʻ Gʻ gʻ Sh sh Ch ch Ng ng

 

 

Pronunciation of letters:

 

" A " as in the word "cat"

" B " as in the word "bat"

" D " as in the word "den"

" E " as in the word "bet"

" F " as in the word "fish"

" G " as in the word "go"

" H " as in the word "house"

" I " as in the word "me"

" J " as in the word "joke" or as in "vision"

" K " as in the word "cold"

" L " as in the word "list"

" M " as in the word "man"

" N " as in the word "next"

" O " as in the word "hot" or as in "call"

" P " as in the word "pin"

" Q " like a " K ", but further back in the throat

" R " as in the word "rat" (trilled, like in Russian)

" S " as in the word "sick"

" T " as in the word "toe"

" U " as in the word "put" or as in "choose"

" V " as in the word "van"

" X " - "ch" as in German "Bach" or Scottish "loch"

" Y " as in the word "yes"

" Z " as in the word "zebra"

" O' " as in the word "row", "fur"

" G' " like a French or German "r"

" Sh " as in the word "shoe"

" Ch " as in the word "chew"

" Ng " as in the word "king"

 

Apostrophe is used either

1) to mark the phonetic glottal stop when put immediately before a vowel or

2) to mark a long vowel when placed immediately after a vowel.

 














 

 

 

 

Examples with " a ":

 

ana - that, there (points to something distant)

mana - this, here (points to something close)

 

aka - older brother

uka - younger brother

aka-uka - brothers

ana aka - that is the older brother

mana uka - this is the younger brother

mana aka-uka - these are brothers

 

Attention!

Almost always, the stress in Uzbek words is put on the last syllable!

 

 

 

Examples with " i ":

 

ip - thread

igna (nina) - needle

iz - track(s)

imzo - signature

 

 

Misollar - Examples:

 

Mana ip - This is a thread

Ana ip - That is a thread

Mana nina (igna) - This is a needle

Mana iz -  This is a track (These are tracks)

Mana imzo - This is signature

 

 

 

Examples with " o ":

 

non - bread

bola - child

ol - take

olma apple

 

 

Misollar - Examples:

 

Mana non - This is a bread

Mana bola - This is a child

Karim, nonni ol - Karim, take a bread

Lola, olmani ol - Lola, take an apple

 

Attention!

In Uzbek, the predicate is at the end of a sentence!

 

 

 

 

Examples with " u ":

 

bu - this, "this is"

 

uzum - vine, grapes

uchun - for

uy - home

uzun - long

 

 

Misollar - Examples:

 

Bu olma - This is an apple

Sardor, bu olmani ol - Sardor, take this apple

Mana uy - This is a home

Mana uzum - This is a vine

Umida, uzumdan ol - Umida, take these grapes

Mana Karim uchun uy - This house is for Karim

Bu uzum shirin - These grapes are sweet

Aziz, uzumdan ol - Aziz, take these grapes

Sevara uchun uzum ol - Take these grapes for Sevara

 

Uzbek prepositions are always placed after the word to which they refer!

 

 

 

Examples with " e ":

 

etik - high boot

eshik - door

el - people

erkak - man

ertaga - tomorrow

echki - goat

kelmoq - to come

 

The affix "-moq" gives an indefinite verb form.

 

 

Misollar - Examples:

 

Bu echki - This is a goat

Mana eshik - Here is the door

Ana etik - There is a high boot

Karim, ertaga kel - Karim, come tomorrow

Aziz, etikni ol - Aziz, take the high boot

Tursun, eshikni och - Tursun, open the door

Lola, echkini olib ket - Lola, take the goat away

 

 

Attention!

 

There are no prefixes in the Uzbek language. But there are many affixes that go in a certain order after the root of the word. The root of a word, as a rule, consists of 1-2 syllables; the main part of the word is often a set of affixes.

 

The affix "-ni" is used in the accusative case.

 

 

 

 

Examples with " o' ":

 

tort - four

bor - chalk

koz - eye

kocha - street

dost - friend

soz - word

oz - own, -self-

 

 

 

Misollar - Examples:

 

Mana bor - Here is the chalk

Tursun, borni ol - Tursun, take the chalk

Uzun kocha - Long street

Sozlarni oqing - Read the words

O'z oilam - My own family

Men buni o'zim qilaman - I do it myself

 

 

 

 

 

Examples with " q ":

 

qor - snow

quyosh - sun

quloq - ear, ears

qogoz - paper

ortoq - comrade

qishloq - village

 

 

 

Misollar - Examples:

 

Qor yogdi - It was snowing

Quyosh nurlari - Sun rays

Quloq solmoq - listen

Yozuv qogozi - Writing paper

Qoshni qishloq - Neighboring village

 

 

 

 

Examples with " g' ":

 

goz - goose

bog - garden

tog - mountain

galaba - victory

gayrat - energy, ardour

 

 

 

Misollar - Examples:

 

Goz bolasi - Gosling

Goz goshti - Goose meat

Mevazor bog - Orchard

Tog etagi - Foot of the mountain

Tog choqqisi - Peak

Galaba qozonmoq - To win a victory

Gayrat qilmoq - To act energetically

 

 

 

 

Examples with " h ":

 

ham - and, both

hayot - life

hozir - now

hazil - joke

hikoya - story

hamma - all

hafta - week

harakat - movement, motion

 

 

 

Misollar - Examples:

 

Kocha harakati Street traffic

Men ham oqiyman, sen ham oqiysan And I will teach, and you will

Hayot kechirmoq To spend life, to live

Hazil qilmoq To joke   (qilmoq - to do)

Hikoyalar toplami Collection of stories

Hamma narsa All things

Otgan hafta Last week

 

 

 

 

Examples with " j ":

 

juda - very

juma - Friday

joja - chicken

jim - calm, quiet

janjal - scandal

janub - south

 

 

 

 

 

Examples with " ng ":

 

 

ong consciousness

tong dawn

bong scream

jang battle

 

 

 

 

 

Kishilik olmoshlari - Personal pronouns

 

 

Men I

Sen Thou

U He, She, It

Biz We

Siz You

Ular They

 

 

Attention!

 

In Uzbek, as in other Turkic languages, there is no grammatical gender.

 

 

 


Soroq olmoshlari - Interrogative pronouns

The interrogative pronoun Kim? - Who? - is used only in relation to people, and in relation to everything else Nima? - What?


Misollar Examples:


Bu kim? Who is this?
Bu Rustam. This is Rustam.
U kim? Who is it?
U muhandis. He is an engineer.
Siz kimsiz? Who are you?
Men shifokorman. I am a doctor.
Bu nima? What is this?
Bu kitob. This is a book.
Mana bu nima? What is this?
Mana bu avtobus. This is a bus.

 

 

 


Interrogative sentences are constructed in three ways:

1. Using interrogative particles (mi, -chi, -a):


Bu yaxshi kitobmi? - It is a good book, isn't it(kitob - book)

Siz talabamisiz? - Are you a student?   (talaba - student;   -siz - 2nd person plural affix)

U-chi? What about him?

U shifokor-a? - He is a doctor, isn't he?

2. Using interrogative pronouns:

Ana bu nima? - What is there?

3. Using interrogative intonation:

Soat ikki bo'ldi? - It's two o'clock now (isn't it)?  
(soat = hour, ikki = two, bo'ldi = was   (bo'l = is, -di = past tense affix))

 


The word order in the interrogative sentence is usually the same as in the answer. That is, the interrogative pronoun is in the place of the word containing the answer.

 

 

 

 

Important affix "LAR:

 

 

"Lar is the main prefix for the plural:

 

bolalar children, sozlar words, toglar mountains etc.

 

 

In some cases, this affix can be used not only with nouns, but also with other parts of speech, for example, with verbs:

 

Qidirdilar, ammo topolmadilar - They searched, but could not find.

 

 

In addition, this affix is used to convey a respectful attitude:

 

otamlar - my dear father, onamlar - my dear mother;

 

Xush kelibsizlar! - Welcome dear guest!

 

 

 

Egalik qoshimchalari - Possessive affixes:

 

 

The Uzbek language has possessive affixes that are attached to names to indicate that a given object belongs to any person or object.

 

After the final vowel:

 

1st person, singular: m; plural: miz

2nd person, singular: ng; plural: ngiz

3rd person, singular: si; plural: si or lari

 

After the final consonant:

 

1st person, singular: im; plural: imiz

2nd person, singular: ing; plural: ingiz

3rd person, singular: i; plural: i or lari

 

 

This refers to the person and number inherited from the person or thing to which the object belongs.

In the third person, the number is not inherited. The affix "lari" = "lar"+"i", here "lar" gives us the plural of the subordinate object.

 

Examples:

 

my house uyim; our house uyimiz;

my houses uylarim; our houses - uylarimiz;

 

your (thy) house uying; your house - uyingiz;

your (thy) houses uylaring; your houses - uylaringiz;

 

his house - uyi; their house uyi;

his houses - uylari; their houses uylari.

 

 

 

Examples with a final vowel:

 

otam my father

otang your (thy) father

otasi his (her) father

otamiz our father

otangiz your father

otasi their father

 

 

 

Examples with a final consonant:

 

maktabim my school

maktabing your (thy) school

maktabi his (her) school

maktabimiz our school

maktabingiz your school

maktabi their school

 

 

 

Examples sentences:

 

Kitobim qani? Where is my book?

Kitobingni ol Take your book.

Kitobini ber Give me his (her) book.

Kitobingni oqi Read your book.

Kitobimni oqi Read my book.

Kitobingni oqiyman I will read your book.

Kitobimiz kimda? Who has our book?

Kitobingiz stolda Your book is on the table.

Kitobingizni kim oqidi? Who has read your book?

Kitobingizni men oqidim I read your book.

 

 

 

Names of the days of the week:

 

Yakshanba - Sunday

Dushanba - Monday

Seshanba - Tuesday

Chorshanba - Wednesday

Payshanba - Thursday

Juma - Friday

Shanba Saturday

 

 

 

Examples of yes/no questions:

 

Aziz shanba kuni ishladimi? - Did Aziz work on Saturday?

Ha, Aziz shanba kuni ishladi. - Yes, Aziz worked on Saturday.

Yoq, Aziz shanba kuni ishlamadi. - No, Aziz did not work on Saturday.

 

Sen hafta kunlarini aytib bera olasanmi? - Can you name the days of the week?

Ha, aytib bera olaman, marhamat. - Yes, I can, please.

 

Siz shanba kuni ishlaysizmi? Do you work on Saturday?

Dushanba kuni majlis boladimi? Will there be a meeting on Monday?

 

Lola dushanba kuni ishga boradimi? (or "Lola dushanbada ishga boradimi?") - Will Lola go to work on Monday?

Ha, Lola dushanba kuni ishga boradi. - Yes, Lola will go to work on Monday.

Seshanba kuni-chi? - And on Tuesday?

Seshanba kuni ham boradi. (or "Seshanbada ham boradi") - Yes, and on Tuesday, too, will go.

 

 

 

Interrogative sentences can be formed using the following interrogative pronouns:

 

Kim?, Kimlar? Who? (We say "Kimlar" if we know that there are several persons)

Nima?, Nimalar? What? (We say "Nimalar" if we know there are multiple items)

 

Qanday? Which?, What kind of...?, How?

Qanday qilib? - How?, In what way?

 

Qaysi? What kind of...? - Which?

Qaysi biri? - Which one of...?

 

Qancha?, Necha? How much?, How many?

Nechta? How many (items)?

Nechanchi? Which (one) is on the bill?

 

Qachon? When?

Qachondan beri? Since when?

 

Qayerda? - Where?

Qayerga? - In which direction?

Qayerdan? - Where from?

 

Nega? - Why?

Nimaga? - Why? For what?

 

 

 

Examples of whquestions:

 

Bu qanday qalam? Bu qora qalam.

What kind of pencil is this? This is a black pencil.

 

Bu qaysi ko'cha? Bu yangi ko'cha.

Which street is this? This is a new street.

 

Siz qayerda o'qiysiz? Men universitetda o'qiyman.

Where do you study? I am studying at university.

 

U nimaga qiziqadi? U tarixga qiziqadi.

What is he interested in? He is interested in history.

 

Siz haftaning qaysi kuni dam olasiz?

Which day of the week do you rest?

 

Haftaning qaysi kunlari ishlaysiz?

What days of the week do you work?

 

Yakshanba kuni qayerga bormoqchisiz?

Where do you want to go on Sunday?

 

 

 

There are 2 features of the use of possessive affixes:

 

 

1. At the root of some words, a vowel in the second syllable disappears:

 

singil (sister) singlim, singlimiz, singling, singlingiz, singlisi (my sister, our sister, );

 

shahar (town) shahrim, ;

 

bo'yin (neck) bo'ynim, ;

 

qorin (belly) qornim, , qorni.

 

Voy qornim! = Woe is me!

 

 

2. At the root of two-syllable words ending in the consonants k or q,

 

- k changes to g: ko'ylak (shirt) ko'ylagi, chelak (bucket) chelagi, yurk (heart) yurgi,

 

- q changes to g': o'rtoq (comrade) o'rtog'i, qishloq (village) qishlog'i, botlq (little camel) botlgi.

 

 

 

Numeral

 

 

son - numeral, number

yil year

oy - month

hafta week

kun - day

soat hour

 

Numerals are divided into cardinal (miqdor son) and ordinal (tartib son).

Cardinal numerals answer the questions "Qancha?", "Nechta?", "Necha?".

Ordinal numerals answer the question "nechanchi" (which) and are formed by adding suffixes to cardinal numerals:

 

-nchi (after final vowels);

-inchi (after final consonants).

 

 

1 bir

2 ikki

3 uch

4 tort

5 besh

6 olti

7 yetti

8 sakkiz

9 toqqiz

10 on

20 yigirma

30 ottiz

40 qirq

50 ellik

60 oltmish

70 yetmish

80 sakson

90 toqson

100 yuz

1000 ming

 

 

 





 

 

Ordinal numerals examples:

 

 

Uchinchi eshikdan kir! - Enter the third door!

 

Bu qirq oltinchi uy - This is the forty sixth house

 

Ertaga o'n birinchi dars bo'ladi Tomorrow will be the eleventh lesson

 

Birinchi yil o'tdi The first year has passed

 

 

 

The use of cardinal numerals in sentences often looks like Number + ta + Noun:

 

 

Bu ko'chada sakkizta uy bor - There are eight houses on this street

Yigirma ettita olma bor - There are twenty seven apples

 

 

Another way is to use numerative words

 

Here are the most used numerative words:

 

dona piece, item

nusxa example of a book or a document

bosh animal unit

tup plant unit

nafar person

juft couple

yosh - used to indicate age (yosh young)

 

Examples:

 

yetti dona baliq seven fishes

tort tup daraxt four trees

on nafar oquvchi ten students

 

In many cases, neither the "-ta" affix nor the numerative word is used. For example, when we talk about time:

 

Ikki soat kutdik - We waited two hours

Bu yerda ikki yil yashadik - We lived here for two years

Bizga uch hafta kerak - We need three weeks

 

Nouns after numerals are not formed by the affix lar:

 

kok qalamlar blue pencils (no numerals)

beshta qalam five pencils

besh dona qalam five pieces of pencils

on tup daraxt ten trees

 

 

 

Yer - land, place.

Qay Which? What kind of...? (rarely used)

 

Qaysi Which? What kind of...? (frequently used)

Qaysi = Qay + si, si is possessive affix, 3rd person.

 

 

Qayer = qay + yer

Qayer? What kind of place is it?

Bu qayer? Bu dalamiz. What kind of place is it? This is our field. (dala field)

 

 

Let's recall such interrogative pronouns:

 

Qayerda? - Where?

Qayerga? - In which direction?

Qayerdan? - Where from?

 

Bu ko'cha qayerda? Where is this street?

Qayerga qarayapsiz? Where are you looking?

U qayerdan kelgan? Where did he (she) come from?

 

 

Bu yerga keling! Come here!

 

bu yerda here

u yerda there

 

 

 

Words to memorize

 

bola - child

aka - older brother

uka - younger brother

aka-uka - brothers

ota - father

ona - mother

ota-ona - parents

singil - younger sister

opa - older sister; mother

opa-singil - sisters

o'g'il - son

qiz - girl, daughter

kishi, odam - human

qariya - old man

 

 

Examples:

 

Bolalarim bor - I have children

 

Akam sayrga chiqdi - My brother went for a walk

 

Bu odam mening o'g'lim - This man is my son

 

Singilingiz yashil ko'zlari bor - Your sister has green eyes

 

Qizimiz o'tgan yili tug'ilgan - Our daughter was born last year

 

 

 

 

 

In Uzbek, often the same word can act as both an adjective and an adverb.

 

Adjectives do not change in number.

 

 

 

Words to memorize (adjectives/adverbs):

 

 

katta - big; older / kichik - small; younger

 

yaxshi - good; well / yomon - bad

 

oq - white / qora - black

 

baland - tall / past - lower

 

uzun - long / qisqa, kalta - short

 

yosh - young / qari - old (man); eski (thing)

 

achchiq - bitter / shirin - sweet

 

issiq - hot / sovuq - cold

 

ogir - heavy / yengil - easy

 

tez - fast, rapid, quick, quickly / sekin - slow, slowly

 

ko'p - many, much / kam, oz - few, small

 

 

 

Examlpes:

 

 

katta yo'l - big road

 

yaxshi odamlar - good people

 

yaxshi ishlamoq - to work well

 

Yaxshi qoling! - Stay well!

 

past tog' - low mountain

 

Oq yo'l! - Have a good trip!

 

oq bo'r - white chalk

 

sovuq suv - cold water

 

ogir chelak - heavy bucket

 

tez o'sish - rapid growth

 

sekin harakat - slow motion

 

ko'p daraxtlar - many trees

 

yosh ayol - young woman

 

kichik qiz - little girl

 

yomon kishi - bad guy

 

qora qor - black snow

 

baland bog' - high garden

 

uzun arqon - long rope

 

qisqa ko'cha - short street

 

qari kishi - old man

 

shirin konfet - sweet candy

 

issiq ko'l - hot lake

 

yengil ish - light work

 

kam miqdor - small amount

 

bir oz sut - a little of milk

 

eski uy - old house

 

achchiq tutun - bitter smoke

 

 

 

Imperative-subjunctive verbs

 

(buyruq-istak mayli)

 

 

In Uzbek, the imperative and the subjunctive moods of a verb are considered to be one mood.

 

We translate 1st person verbs as a wish, 2nd person verbs as an order/wish, 3rd person verbs as a wish for that person.

 

 

olmoq - to take (the affix "-moq" gives an indefinite verb form)

 

Olmani ol! - Take the apple!

 

Olma - apple. The "-ni" suffix is used in the accusative case, but not always:

 

Olma ol! - Take an apple!

 

 

Imperative-subjunctive affixes:

 

 

After the final vowel:

 

1st person, singular: -y; plural: -y-lik

2nd person, singular: no affix, or in polite form - "-ng"; plural: -ngiz

3rd person, singular: -sin; plural: sin or -sin-lar

 

After the final consonant:

 

1st person, singular: -ay; plural: -ay-lik

2nd person, singular: no affix, or in polite form - "-ing"; plural: -ingiz

3rd person, singular: -sin; plural: sin or -sin-lar

 

 

Words to memorize:

 

 

och - open

 

yop - close

 

o'tir - sit down, sit

 

tur - stand up, stand

 

yot - lie down, lie

 

ol - take

 

ber - give

 

ishla - work

 

 

Examples for Imperative-subjunctive:

 

 

Men ishlay. - I would work.

 

Biz ishlaylik. - We would work.

 

Sen ishla! - Work! / Siz ishlang! - Work please!

 

Siz ishlangiz! - Work (please)! (plural)

 

U ishlasin. - It would be nice for him (her) to work.

 

Ular ishlasin. (or "Ular ishlasinlar") - It would be nice for them to work.

 

 

Men o'tiray. - I would sit.

 

Biz o'tiraylik. - We would sit.

 

Sen o'tir! - Sit! / Siz o'tiring! - Sit down please!

 

Siz o'tiringiz! - Sit down (please)! (plural)

 

U o'tirsin. - It would be nice for him (her) to sit down.

 

Ular o'tirsin. (or "Ular o'tirsinlar") - It would be nice for them to sit down.

 

 

 

Words to memorize:

 

 

ha - yes

 

yo'q - no

 

 

bugun - today

 

hozir - now

 

 

kerak - "it is necessary"

 

mumkin - "it is permissible"

 

 

 

Examples:

 

 

Bugun haftaning nechanchi kuni? - What day of the week is it today?

 

Bugun seshanba. - Today is Tuesday.

 

Eshikni qachon yopasiz? - When do you close the door?

 

Hozir yopaman. - I'm closing now.

 

Issiq suvmi? - Is it hot water?

 

Ha, bu issiq suv. - Yes, it's hot water.

 

Yo'q, bu sovuq suv. - No, it's cold water.

 

Bu nima uchun kerak? - Why is this necessary?

 

Bu kerak emas. - It is not necessary.

 

emas = not

 

 

 

Words to memorize:

 

 

qogoz - paper

 

kitob - book

 

matn - text

 

harf - letter

 

daftar - copybook

 

uy - home

 

ko'cha - street

 

yo'l - road

 

shahar - town

 

qishloq - village

 

 

 

Examples:

 

 

Bu yaxshi kitobmi? - Is this a good book?

 

Ha, yaxshi. - Yes, good.

 

Aka, daftarni bering! - Brother, give me the copybook!

 

Yo'q, bu mening daftarim! - No, this is my copybook!

 

 

 

Compound words to memorize:

 

 

shu - this

shu-shu - ever since

 

o'sha - same

o'sha-o'sha - ever since

 

tez - quick

tez-tez - frequent

 

dona - piece, item

dona-dona - grainly, powdery

dona-dona qilib ...moq - (do something) clearly:

dona-dona qilib gapirmoq - speak clearly,

dona-dona qilib yozmoq - write clearly

 

juda - very, too much

juda-juda - absolutely

 

kalta - short

kalta-kalta - (do something) often and intermittent

kalta-kalta qadam bosmoq - to take small steps

 

rasta - shopping row

rasta-rasta - (stand, move) in rows, in a string

 

gala - horde, pack

gala-gala - like a horde, in a pack

 

taka - goat

taka-taka qilmoq - to seek through

 

xona - room

xona-xona - consisting of separate rooms, honeycomb, checkered

 

shoda - bundle, necklace

shoda-shoda - bundles; many, a lot of

 

shona - flower-bud

shona-shona - studded with buds

 

qayta - again

(qaytmoq - to return)

qayta-qayta - repeatedly, over and over again

 

g'udda - knob, pimple

g'udda-g'udda - knobby

 

halqa - circle, ring, (chain) link

halqa-halqa - in rings, in plumes of smoke:

tutun halqa-halqa bo'lib chiqmoqda - smoke billows in rings

 

boshqa - another

...-dan boshqa - except ...:

sendan boshqa - except you

boshqa-boshqa - separately, different

 

bo'lak - part, piece

bo'lak-bo'lak - in pieces, in parts

 

ayrim - special, separate

ayrim-ayrim - separately

 

alohida - separate, special, detached

alohida-alohida - separately

 

 

 

Demonstrative pronouns

 

 

Birlik (singular):

 

 

u = that, he, she

 

bu = this

 

shu = this here

 

o'sha = the one, the very

 

 

bunday = like this, like that

 

shunday = so, such

 

o'shanday = the same, as well

 

 

Ko'plik (plural):

 

 

ular = those, they

 

bular = these

 

shular = these here

 

o'shalar = those same

 

 

 

Examples:

 

 

Ana u kim? - Who is he?

U sotuvchi. - He is a salesman.

 

Mana bu nima? - What is this?

Bu olma. - It's an apple.

 

U erda nima? - What is there?

U - daraxt. - That is a tree.

 

Ana shu koylak. - That's the coat.

 

Shu ko'chada yurdingizmi? - Did you walk down this street?

 

Ana osha kuni. - This is the day.

 

 

Bunday taom tezda tayyorlanadi. - Such a dish is prepared quickly.

 

Bu shunday yuz berdi. - It happened like this.

 

Ana o'shanday ishni qila olamiz. - We can do this kind of work.

 

 

Ular shaharga kelishdi. - They came to town.

 

Bular boshqa-boshqa narsalar. - These are different things.

 

Bu daraxtlar - teraklar. Shular eng baland. - These trees are poplars. These are the highest.

 

Odamlarni ko'ryapsizmi? O'shalar. - Do you see people? These are the ones.

 

 

 





 

Words to memorize:

 

 

savol - question

 

javob - answer

 

 

Examples:

 

 

Savolingizni bering! - Ask your question! ("ingiz" - imperative-subjunctive affix, "ni" - accusative affix)

 

U menga javob bersin! - Let him give me the answer! ("sin" - imperative-subjunctive affix)

 

 

 

Words to memorize:

 

 

koz - eye

 

quloq - ear

 

qo'l - hand

 

yelka - shoulder

 

boyin - neck

 

qorin - belly

 

 

Examples:

 

 

uning go'zal ko'zlari - her beautiful eyes

 

uzun quloqlar - long ears

 

Menga qo'lingni ber! (or: "Menga qoʻlingizni bering!") - Give me your hand!

 

qalin bo'yin - thick neck

 

katta qorin - big belly

 

 

 

 

 

 

Case formation in Uzbek language

 

 

 

There are six main cases in Uzbek language: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative and ablative:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Genitive (Possessive) Case. Possessive suffix NING

 

 

There is a special suffix construction in Uzbek which means belonging to. Unlike in English, Uzbek possession can be marked by both Possessor and Possessed. In Uzbek the Possessor is suffixed with -ning and Possessed is suffixed with im, -ing, -i, -miz, -ingiz, ngiz.

 

The formation of possessive relationship is following: the Possessor Anvar has a possession kitob or ona. When suffixed in Uzbek it becomes Anvarning kitobi (Anvars book) or Anvarning onasi (Anvars mother).

 

The plurals are formed by the adding -lar to the root word of either the possessor or the possessed or to both according to context. The possessive forms of personal pronouns are usually dropped when a noun already reflects possession: Mening ismim Barno vs. Ismim Barno.

 

Words in the possessive case in a sentence are always a definition and are ahead of the word being defined.

 

 

 

Examples:

 

 

Bizning hovlimiz katta. Our yard is big.

 

Sening dosting aqlli. Your friend is smart.

 

Bu sening kitobingmi? Is this your book?

 

Bizning auditoriya katta. Our audience is huge.

 

Sening kozlaring juda chiroyli. Your eyes are beautiful.

 

Sizning akangiz qayerda ishlaydi? Where does your brother work?

 

Maktabning hovlisi chiroyli. The school yard is beautiful.

 

Sizning familiyangiz nima? What's your last name?

 

Sizning otingiz nima? What is your name?

 

Shaharning kochalari chiroyli. The streets of the city are beautiful.

 

Karimning otasi oqituvchi. Karim's father is a teacher.

 

Sinf jurnali qayerda? Where's the cool magazine?

 

Biz Alisher Navoiyning sherlarini oqidik. We read Alisher Navoi's poems.

 

Oqituvchimizning topshirigini bajardik. We have completed the teacher's task.

 

Ariqning suvi toza. The water of the ditch is clean.

 

Bizning kutubxonamizda kitob kop. There are many books in our library.

 

Respublikamizning poytaxti Toshkent. The capital of our republic is Tashkent.

 

Toshkentning binolari chiroyli. The buildings of Tashkent are beautiful.

 

Siz shaharning qaysi tumanida yashaysiz? What area of the city do you live in?

 

Kecha sening maqolangni oqidik. We read your article yesterday.

 

Mening fikrim shu. That's my opinion.

 

 

 

The possessive case can be formed - with the suffix -ning, and unformed - without the suffix -ning.

 

 

The formed possessive case denotes a specific, definite object:

 

Mening singlim ishga ketdi My sister has gone to work

 

Oquvchining otasi maktabga keldi The student's father came to school

 

Umarning ortoqlari kinoga ketdilar Umar's comrades went to the cinema

 

 

Informal possessive indicates an indefinite meaning:

 

Shahar ko'chalari uzun va keng bo'lishi kerak City streets should be long and wide

 

 

 

Often there are nouns in sentences for which the Possessor is not explicitly indicated.

 

Nouns in the 3rd person must be suffixed (-i or -si) in the following cases:

 

 

1. Ownership is known, even if the Possessor is not explicitly specified:

 

Shahardan tashqarida Sirdaryo oqadi. Daryosi sayozlashdi.

 

The Syrdarya River flows outside the city. The river became shallower.

 

 

2. It is said about a certain subject, the uniqueness of which is emphasized by the definition. In this case, -i (-si) serves as a definite article:

 

Bu Kickik Halqa yoli.

 

This is the Little Ring Road.

 

 

 

About haq, haqda, haqida

 

 

haq = truth,

haqda, haqida = about.

 

Bu kitob o'tmish olimlari haqida. - This book is about the scientists of the past.

 

but:

 

Nima haqda yozmoqchisiz? - What do you want to write about?

 

 

 

Present-Future Tense. Presonal Endings of Predicates

 

 

 

The simplest and most frequently used grammatical tense in the Uzbek language is Present-Future.

 

It is so called because the form of verbs (or other parts of speech as a predicate) does not change depending on when an event occurs, in the present or in the future. Time is determined by the context or adverb of time.

 

For the case of the present tense, this is an analogue of the English Present Simple. By the way, there is also an analogue of Present Continuous in the Uzbek language, but we will talk about this later.

 

 

Examples:

 

 

1. Men talabaman. Universitetda tarix fanini o'rganaman. Kechqurun kitob o'qiyman.

 

I am a student. I study history at university. I read books in the evenings. (Present)

 

 

2. Ertaga ishlamaymiz. Biz daryoga boramiz.

 

We will not work tomorrow. We will go to the river. (Future)

 

 

Sentences in the Present-Future are formed using the affixes "a" or "y" and "personal endings".

 

The personal ending is added to the verb or other part of speech used as a predicate. Since the predicate in the Uzbek language is almost always put at the end of a sentence, a significant part of sentences end in personal endings. This fact gives the originality of Turkic poetry.

 

 

 

Presonal Endings:

 

 

1st person, singular: man; plural: miz

 

2st person, singular: san; plural: siz

 

3st person, verb, singular: di; plural: di(lar)

 

3st person, other parts of speech, singular: no ending; plural: (lar)

 

 

 

Examples (predicate is a verb):

 

 

bilmoq to know

 

Men bilaman I know, I will know

 

Sen bilasan You know, You will know

 

U biladi He (she) knows, He (she) will know

 

Biz bilamiz We know, We will know

 

Siz bilasiz You know, You will know

 

Ular biladi OR Ular biladilar They know, They will know

 

 

ishlamoq to work

 

Men ishlayman I work, I will work

 

Sen ishlaysan You work, You will work

 

U ishlaydi He (she) works, He (she) will work

 

Biz ishlaymiz We work, We will work

 

Siz ishlaysiz You work, You will work

 

Ular ishlaydi OR Ular ishlaydilar They work, They will work

 

 

 

Examples (predicate is another part of speech):

 

 

Siz chiroylisiz You are beautiful

 

Ular kichik They are small

 

Ular bolalar They are children

 

Biz uydamiz We are at home

 

Men och emasman I'm not hungry (When we use "emas" = "not", the personal ending is added to the word "emas"!)

 

 

 

If a personal ending is used, the pronoun is often omitted:

 

 

Dushanba kunlari ishlayman I work on Mondays

 

Chiroylisiz You are beautiful

 

Uydamiz We are at home

 

Och emasman I'm not hungry

 

 

 

 

The interrogative form of verbs in the present-future is formed using the affix -mi, which is added to the end of the word:

 

 

Hamma narsani tushunasizmi? Ha, tushunaman. Do you understand everything? Yes I understand.

 

Ertaga ishlaysizmi? Ha, ishlayman. Will you work tomorrow? Yes, I will work.

 

 

 

The negative form of verbs in the present-future is formed by adding the affix -ma, which is inserted after the root. Since "ma" ends with a vowel, the affix "y" follows.

 

Hamma narsani tushunasizmi? Yo'q tushunmayman. Do you understand everything? No, I don't understand.

 

Ertaga ishlaysizmi? Yo'q, ishlamayman. Will you work tomorrow? No, I will not work.

 

 

 

Time. Time of day. Frequently used adverbs of time

 

 

vaqt time

 

payt moment of time

 

 

tong dawn

 

erta morning

 

kun day

 

kech evening

 

tun - night

 

 

tongda at dawn

 

ertalab - in the morning

 

kunduzi - in the afternoon

 

kechqurun - in the evening

 

tunda, kechasi - at night

 

 

hozir, endi now

 

bugun today

 

kecha yesterday

 

ertaga tomorrow

 

 

 

Age

 

 

yosh age; young

 

 

Siz necha yoshdasiz? - How old are you?

 

 

Men yigirma yoshdaman. - I'm twenty years old.

 

OR:

 

Men yigirmadaman. - I'm twenty.

 

OR:

 

Yigirmadaman. - I'm twenty.

 

 

Here "da" is the affix of the locative case; "man" personal ending.

 

 

Similarly, we can ask and answer:

 

 

Men necha yoshdsman? - How old am I?

 

Siz qirq yoshdasiz. - You are fourty years old.

 

 

U necha yoshda? - How old is he (she)?

 

U ellik bir yoshda. - He (she) is fifty-one years old. (there is no personal ending here, because "yosh" is not a verb)

 

 

Akang necha yoshda? - How old is your brother?

 

Akam o'ttiz uchda. - My brother is thirty-three.

 

 

 

Verbs to memorize:

 

 

bor - there is/are, existing, have

Menda chelak bor - I have a bucket

 

bo'lmoq - to be, to take place, happen

 

Siz kim bo'lasiz? - Who are you?

Sog' bo'ling! - Be healthy!

Bor bo'ling! - I wish you to live!

 

bilmoq - to know

bilim - knowledge

tushunmoq - to understand

 

yashamoq - to live (anywhere)

qilmoq - to do

 

qaramoq - to look

ko'rmoq - to see

 

eshitmoq - to hear, to listen

tinglamoq - to listen

quloq solmoq - to listen

quloq bermoq - to listen

 

solmoq - to put

 

o'qimoq - to read; study (somewhere)

yozmoq - to write

 

gapirmoq - to speak, to talk

gaplashmoq - to speak, to talk, to negotiate

aytmoq - to say, to speak, to tell; to call, to invite

demoq - to tell (the words) (a case of direct speech, retelling)

so'zlamoq - to talk, to tell, to narrate

(so'z - word)

so'ylamoq - to talk, to tell, to narrate

 

yurmoq - to go, to move

bormoq - to go (anywhere); to reach

kelmoq - to come

qolmoq - to stay (anywhere)

ketmoq - to go out

qochmoq - to run away

qaytmoq - to return

kechmoq - to overpass, to go through something; to forgive

otmoq - to pass, to step over

kirmoq - to enter

chiqmoq - to go outside, to leave

 

yordamlashmoq, yordam bermoq - to help

ko'maklashmoq - to provide support, to help, to help each other

 

 

Compound verbs:

 

chiqib qoldi appeared ("leaving, got up")

 

qochib ketdi disappeared ("left running away")

 

If we don't use "a" ("y"), but use a personal ending, this is the Past tense (qoldi, ketdi).

 

 

Antonyms:

 

boshlanmoq - to begin

bitirmoq - to finish

tugatmoq - to finish

 

turmoq - to stand, to stand up

o'tirmoq - to sit, to sit down

 

ochmoq - to open

yopmoq - to close

 

olmoq - to take

bermoq - to give

 

 

 

Examples sentences:

 

 

Bu yerga keling! - Come here!

 

Bu yerga qarang! - Look here!

 

Eshiting! Tinglang! Quloq soling! Quloq bering! - Listen!

 

Qaytaring! - Return!

 

Qaytaring! Takrorlang! - Repeat!

 

Javob bering! - Answer!

 

Ichkariga kiring! - Come on in!

 

Kitob o'qing! - Read a book!

 

Kitobni o'qing! - Read the book!

 

Derazani oching! - Open the window!

 

Derazani ochmang! - Don't open the window!

 

Buni qilma! - Don't do it!

 

Gapirmang! Gaplashmang! - Do not speak!

 

Menga yordam bering! - Help me!

 

 

Bu dori menga yordamlashadi. - This medicine helps me.

 

Ular bir-birlariga ko'maklashadi. - They help each other.

 

Ertaga u unga bir og'iz so'z aytmaydi. - Tomorrow he won't say a word to her.

 

 

 

 

Earlier it was said that the possessive case affix "-ning" and the possessive affix "-i (-si)" can be omitted. Put crudely, they are used in the same case when in English we use the definite article "the", and are not used in the indefinite case.

 

Approximately the same can be said about the accusative affix "-ni".

 

That is, the accusative case, like the possessive, can be "formed" and "unformed".

 

 

Example of an unformed accusative case:

 

 

Tez orada uy quramiz. - We will build a house soon.

 

Here the word "uy" has no affix for the same reason that in English we use the indefinite article.

 

 

The cases of the formed accusative need to be described in more detail.

 

 

1. With proper names:

 

Rashidni toping - Find Rashid.

 

2. With personal, interrogative or reflexive pronouns:

 

U meni oz uyiga taklif qildi. He invited me to his house.

 

Siz kimni sorayapsiz? Who are you asking?

 

Anna ozini hech kimga tanishtirmadi. Anna did not introduce herself to anyone.

 

3. With nominalized adjectives:

 

Qizilni oling. - Take the red.

 

U bilganini sozlab bersin. Let him tell what he knows. (bilganini = bil + gan + ini, "gan" turns a verb into a past participle)

 

Birinchisini oling, men ikkinchisini olaman. Get the first one, I'll get the second one.

 

4. With words defined by the form of the possessive case:

 

Uning otasini uchrashdim. I met his father.

 

5. With words formed using the possessive case affix "-ning":

 

Men bugun kelganingni eshitdim. I heard you came today.

 

6. With participles:

 

Kelganini kordim. I saw him come.

 

7. With verbal nouns:

 

Akam oqishni bitirdi. My brother graduated. (oqishni: oqimoq to read; to study; -ish is an affix forming a verbal noun)

 

8. If a word in the accusative case is separated from the predicate by other members of the sentence:

 

Vazifani soat beshda tugatdik. We finished the task at five o'clock.

 

9. When using some verbs of motion, we consider that we are in the accusative case and also use "-ni":

 

Shaharni kezmoq. Walking around the city.

 

In this block materials of the textbook are used:

G.H.Bakieva et al., "Uzbek language for the CIS countries".

 

 

 

 

The logic of changing adverbs of time according to cases is best demonstrated by examples with the most commonly used adverbs.

 

We already know the words:

 

kun - day

tun night

tong - dawn

erta - morning

kech - evening

kecha yesterday; night

ertaga - tomorrow

 

ertaga ertalab tomorrow morning

kecha ertalab yesterday morning

ertaga kechqurun tomorrow evening

ertalab in the morning, kechqurun in the evening

bugun kechqurun tonight

 

 

avval before, first

Avval ishni tugatamiz We'll finish the job first

Sendan avval ko'rganman I've seen it before you

 

oldin before, ago

Ikki yil oldin Two years ago

Ovqatdan oldin Before meals

Sizdan sal oldin Just before you

oldinda ahead

oldinda boradi goes ahead

oldindan in advance

oldinga forward

 

ilgari ago, before; forward

Buyuk alloma ming yil(dan) ilgari yashagan edi The great thinker lived 1000 years ago

U ilgari ketadi He goes ahead

ilgaridan in advance, from the beginning

 

keyin after

U mendan keyin kirdi He came in after me

keyinda behind

U keyinda qoladi - He falls behind

keyindan after

 

so'ng after (the end of something), later

U bir yildan so'ng o'qishni bitiradi He graduates in a year

ertadan so'ng day after tomorrow

 

 

osha that

osha kecha that evening

 

oshanda at that time, then

Oshanda mening shaxsiy uyim bor edi. I had my own house then.

 

oshandan buyon since

buyon = bu+yon; yon side, sidepiece

 

Qachondan beri? Since when?

qachon when, as soon as

 

paytgacha until then (payt - moment of time)

 

 

yonida beside (by place or time)

(yon side, sidepiece)

yoniga nearby

yonidan past (something)

 

deraza yonida - next to the window

Aziz oʻchoq yoniga oʻtiradi. Aziz sits by the fire.

U yonidan o'tib ketdi. He walked past me.

 

yaqinda recently; soon

(yaqin close (object, person))

yaqindan close (to something or someone); recently

 

Yaqinda daryoga bordik. - We went to the river recently.

Biz yaqindan tanishmiz. - We are intimately familiar.

 

 

allaqachon a long time ago

allaqachon kelgan already arrived

 

 

 

 

Ranglar Colors

 

 

rang color, tone, tinge

tus hue, shade, color; appearance, manner

 

Qanday qizil rang sizni his qilishadi? How does red make you feel?

Tarkibidagi gemoglobin qonga qizil tus beradi. Hemoglobin, which is part of the blood, gives it a red color.

 

 

rangli colored

rangli bo'yoqlar colored paints

tusli colored

qora tusli ot black horse

 

bo'yoq paint, color

gul flower

guldasta bunch of flowers

chechak flower

 

 

Asosiy ranglar Primary colors:

 

oq white

qora black

qizil red

kok blue

yashil green

sariq yellow

 

 

Bu qaysi rang? What is color?

Bu qizil rang. This is red.

 

Gulning rangi qanday? OR Gul qanday rangda? What color is the flower?

Gulning rangi qizil. OR Gul qizil rangda. The flower is red.

 

 





 

 

 

Uzbeks often say "kok" instead of the word "yashil". For example: kok choy (green tea), kok o't (green grass). But: Yashil bo'yoq (Green paint).

 

 

 

 

 

Uzbek tongue twister:

 

Oq choynakka oq qopqoq, kok choynakka kok qopqoq.

White lid on white teapot, blue lid on blue teapot.

 

 

rasm drawing, picture

surat picture, drawing

asar, san'at asari work of art

rassom artist

rasm chizmoq to paint

 

 

 


 

 

 

Last updated:     01.07.2022,   16:00.

 

 

 

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